International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 15 Issue 3 (September 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270



Original Articles

Analysis of Articles Related to Electronic Books: A Descriptive Content Analysis Study in Turkey Context

Aslı Maden

pp. 7 - 32   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.1


The present study aimed to review the articles published in Turkey on electronic books. In the study, descriptive content analysis method was employed. In the study, national databases such as Ulakbim-UVT, Asos Index, Turkish Education Index (TEI) and international databases such as ERIC, DOAJ, EBSCO, Google Scholar and past issues of educational and social sciences journals in Web of Science (WOS) as of 2017 were searched with “e-book, electronic book, z-book, digital book" keywords both in English and Turkish. Forty-three articles that were accessed in the search were analyzed using the article classification form. The data were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. In the present study research, it was determined that the majority of the articles on e-books were on the "determination of perception, attitude and views" in e-books, the highest number of publications was published in 2013 and 2014, and the studies were mostly authored by a single scientist. Furthermore, it was determined that the authors preferred the “literature review” method, most articles lacked a “research question” in most studies where a sample was set, the data were collected from “undergraduate” students and “random sampling” was preferred. It was also determined that the "frequency" and "percentage" techniques were the most commonly used techniques in data analysis.

Keywords: E-Book, Digital Book, Reading Habit, Digital Publishing, Content Analysis

Opinions of Secondary School Students with Interactive Social Studies Notebooks (ISSN) on Values Development

Erhan Yaylak

pp. 33 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.2


With the aim of investigating the values gained by using interactive notebook applications in social studies lessons for secondary school students, this study was completed as a case study from the qualitative research pattern including 21 students attending a state secondary school in İzmir province during the 2017-2018 educational year and using interactive social studies notebooks. The 21 students selected with the simple random sampling method underwent individual, face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The obtained data was analyzed with the MAXQDA 12 program for content analysis. The following conclusions were reached based on the obtained findings; during ISSN activities students helped each other more compared to normal educational activities and they conceptualized and developed the importance of helping. When students helped each other they felt happy, good, loved and that their friendships were strengthened. They developed their sense of sharing when everyone did the activity together and shared the material they needed. With sharing values, the students began to trust each other and developed a sense of trust. The value of responsibility also developed, though not as much as the other values. Students participating in the research enjoyed doing activities together and expression of this situation can be said to show they developed esthetic feelings. Within the framework of ISSN activities, students generally had positive criticism of the activities performed with friends, but some students had negative criticism. Students performing ISSN activities attempted to leave their surroundings or working area clean at the end of lessons. Students who forgot to clean were warned by other students.

Keywords: Interactive Notebooks, Social Studies, Values Education, Secondary School Students

Prospective Teachers’ Views on Story Use in Social Studies Teaching

Tuğba Sömen

pp. 56 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.3


Including literature and various disciplines, social studies courses given with literary works during the course allow students to develop their intellectual skills and increase interest in the course. The story which has an essential place in the literary products used in the course of social studies possess a facilitating effect on the transfer of social rules and culture to younger generations, helps students understand different ages and places, and plays a role on making divisions between the true and false or the good and evil. Hence, it is crucial to select the right story with the appropriate content for the course. In this sense, the research aims to determine prospective teachers’ views on story usage in social studies lessons. A case study pattern was adopted within the scope of the descriptive approach. The study group  consists of 19 prospective teachers in the final year in Social Studies Education Department at state university in Turkey (Kafkas University).A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used in collecting the data. The researcher utilized descriptive and inferential codes that emerged during the analysis to explain the qualitative data and correlations. In light of the data, prospective teachers stated that the stories to be used in the social studies course should be appropriate for the social studies course achievement and grade level. Additionally, the participant teachers think that stories can be useful in ensuring the permanence of the information learned and drawing attention during the lesson. Also, prospective teachers expressed that the stories that are not used correctly and effectively could interfere with the course's goals or distract students.

Keywords: Story, Social Studies Course, Prospective Teacher

Motivation in Higher Instrumental Education: A Survey with Music Teacher Candidates in Turkey

Gökhan Öztürk

pp. 70 - 99   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.4


Actual research show that more systematic studies are needed on how or why motivation phenomenon occurs in musical contexts. All research with different socio-economic and socio-cultural characteristics in different countries and geographical regions may provide important information to help explain the relationship between instrument training and motivation. In this context, the aim of the study is to examined the motivation of a group of music teacher candidates and relationship with various variables. The study was carried out in Turkey, at a public university and in a city that differs according to many cities in terms of socio-economic structure and dynamics. The study group consisted of students (N=86) enrolled in Music Teacher Training Bachelor Program of the University. The data were collected with advisor database, demographic data form and ‘The Motivation Scale for Individual Instrument Course’ developed by Girgin (2015). To analyze the data, frequency and percentage distribution, t-test, Mann-Whitney U, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman’s Correlation were used. The results showed that the students’ motivation levels of the individual instrument lesson were high-level in the dimensions of amotivation and success motivation and medium-level in the dimension of study motivation. The general motivation was high-level. There was no significant difference between general motivation level and gender, grade level and graduated high school. On the other hand, it was determined that the motivation scores differed significantly in favor of the groups that chosing the instrument voluntarily and devoted more time to practice the instrument. It was found that there was a positive correlation between motivation and course success. The results were discussed within the framework of the corporate culture and the socio-economic and socio-cultural characteristics of the city and the students.

Keywords: Music Teacher Candidates, Musical Instrument Training, Motivation

Investigation of Nomophobia Levels of Secondary School Students in terms of Some Variables

Merve Çolak & Eylem Yalçınkaya Önder

pp. 100 - 121   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.5


Nomophobia, a newborn concept that has become an important part of our lives in recent years due to effective use of smart phones in daily life, can be defined as “fear of staying away from smart phones”. The aim of this study is to determine the nomophobia level of 8th grade students and to determine whether the nomophobia levels of the students differ according to the variables such as gender, overall grade point average, parental education status, parental profession, and monthly income of the family. In this study, a quantitative research method was conducted. “Nomophobia Scale” developed by Yıldırım and Correia (2015) and “The Demographic Knowledge Form” were used as data collection tools. According to the findings; the nomophobia levels of 8th grade students did not differ by gender of the students, overall grade point average, educational status of the parents, profession of the parents and monthly financial amount of the family.

Keywords: Nomophobia, Gender, Secondary School Students, GPA, Mother Education Status, Father Education Status, Mother Profession, Father Profession, Family Income

The Investigation of Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Lifelong Learning Competencies

Murtaza Aykaç, Davut Köğce & Buket Aslandağ

pp. 122 - 139   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.6


The purpose of this study is to examine the mathematics teachers' perceptions of lifelong learning competencies. The study group of the research consisted of secondary school mathematics teachers working in the Ministry of National Education. This study was carried out to examine the perceptions of secondary school mathematics teachers on lifelong learning competencies depending on some variables and a correlational survey model within the scope of the descriptive method was used.  In the research, "Key Competencies Scale in Lifelong Learning" developed by Şahin, Akbaşlı and Yanpar Yelken (2010) was used. Independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to compare the mean scores obtained from the scale by variables.  The results obtained from the research indicated that the secondary school mathematics teachers participated in the research have high level of life-long learning competencies. There was found to be no significant difference between the scores of life-long learning competencies as regards their genders, the high schools they graduated from, the faculty they graduated from, the geographical region where they have been working and professional seniority. However, significant differences were found in participants’ scores of lifelong learning competencies related to their professional satisfaction status and the frequency of the activities they participate for personal and professional development.

Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Mathematics Teachers, Perception of Lifelong Learning

A Mixed-Method Study on Dating Violence Attitudes and Experiences in Emerging Adulthood

Semra Uçar & Şule Baştemur

pp. 140 - 158   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.7


The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the attitudes towards dating violence in emerging adulthood differ according to gender, perceived parental violence type, and dating violence experiences, conform with the sense-making of emerging adults towards dating violence encounters. Convergent parallel pattern which is one of the mixed method patterns was used in the study. In the quantitative section of the study, 564 emerging adults (298 female-266 male) were reached by convenience sampling method. In the qualitative section of the study, however, there were four female and two male participants who were reached by purposive sampling method. Additionally, in the study, Attitude Towards Dating Violence Scales, Personal Information Forms and Semi-Structured Interview Forms were used. While t-test and one-way analysis of variance ANOVA were used for independent variables in the quantitative section of the research, content analysis was utilized in the qualitative section. According to the results of the study, physical and psychological dating violence attitude scores of males and females who perpetrated violence showed significant differences according to gender. On the other hand, according to the history of dating violence, the attitude scores towards the physical dating violence perpetrated by females differed significantly. According to the perceived parental violence, it was observed that the difference between the mean scores in the attitude scores towards the physical dating violence perpetrated by males was higher in those without a history of parental violence. Self-reflection, views of dating violence/sense-making and reactions to dating violence themes of qualitative section findings were also found to be consistent with quantitative findings.  

Keywords: Emerging Adulthood, Dating Violence, Parental Violence, Mixed Method

Writing a Folktale as an Activity of Written Expression: Digital Folktales with StoryJumper

Emel Güvey Aktay

pp. 159 - 185   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.8


Advances in technology lead to widespread use of the internet and computers. Communication that takes place in virtual environments brings the use of written expression to the fore. One of the technological tools utilized in written expression is digital storytelling. The purpose of the current study is to investigate digital folktale writing activities as a means of written expression on the basis of the opinions of pre-service teachers. The participants of the study employing the case study design, one of the qualitative research designs, are 92 pre-service elementary school teachers. The pre-service teachers divided into groups prepared 22 different digital folktales by using the StoryJumper website. The data of the study were collected through semi-structured interviews and documents. In the analysis of the interview data, the descriptive analysis technique was used. The folktales prepared were analyzed by means of document analysis on the basis of the pre-determined criteria. As a result of the analyses, the data collected from the interviews were gathered under 6 themes. The pre-service teachers stated positive opinions about the digital storytelling website they had used. In addition, it was concluded that digital storytelling activity improved the pre-service teachers’ written expression skills, contributed to their personal and professional development and that it was activity suitable for group work.  In addition, it was revealed that the lowest scores were taken from the dimension of adding audio while they received better scores from the dimensions of originality of the topic and pictures used. And they received full points from the dimensions of the characters in the folktale and ending. 

Keywords: Digital Storytelling, Written Expression, Folktale, Teacher Training, Storyjumper

A Multivariate Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers’ Critical Internet Literacy

Bekir Kayabasi, Fatih Kana & Muhammet Alperen Akgün

pp. 186 - 206   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.9


This study aims to reveal the critical Internet literacy levels of preservice teachers in terms of multiple variables, by employing the correlational survey design. The sample of the study is formed by 216 preservice teachers of Turkish language studying at a state university located in western Turkey. The Critical Internet Literacy Scale developed by Dal and Aktay (2015) was used as the data collection tool. The data obtained in the study were subjected to explanatory factor analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis. It was found that the teacher candidates pay attention to online content reliability and websites’ being supported by proven data. The reliability of the online content emerges as the most important issue for preservice teachers. Their critical Internet literacy correlates with the location they spend their lives, their maternal educational background and maternal professional status, grade point averages, year of study, and the number of books they have read. The interest shown by Turkish people in anonymous information seems to apply for the Internet as well. Although the form of literacy has changed within the last 25 years since we began reading online, the answers that we can give to the questions of “why” and “how” we read seem to have remained the same, at least within the context of the current study.

Keywords: Internet, Critical Literacy, Preservice Teacher, Web Sites, Internet Reliability

Consistency of the Narrative Texts Written by Middle School Students and Their Textual Creation Levels

Mustafa Said Kıymaz & İbrahim Doyumğaç

pp. 207 - 232   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.10


The present study aimed to identify and classify the consistency problems in the texts written by middle school 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to determine their textual levels. In the study, numerical data were also used within the context of descriptive analysis design, a qualitative research method. The study group included 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade students attending two middle schools in Van province, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region in Turkey. Ten students were randomly selected from each grade level. The texts were analyzed by assigning codes to 40 participating students and their narrative texts based on the grade level. The analysis of the narrative texts written by the students was conducted with the "Narrative Text Consistency Scale," developed by the authors. The validity and reliability of the scale were determined based on the expert opinion. The texts written by the students were analyzed based on the scale by additional 3 faculty members. The study findings demonstrated that the students experienced consistency problems in narrative texts such as inability to precisely reflect the relations between events in the text, alteration of the narrative between the events narrated in the text and sudden transitions, contradictions and irrational transitions between the sections, the lack of a conclusion, inconsistencies about the protagonists, and non-identification of the characters in the story. It was also determined that the number of creative texts was 4, the number of successful texts was 8, the number of texts that could be accepted as a text partially was 9, the number of texts that could be considered in the phase of text creation was 12, and the number of texts that could not be accepted as texts was 7.

Keywords: Consistency, Narrative Text, Textual Level, Middle School Students

A Validity and Reliability Study of the Scale for Attitude Towards Classroom as a Learning Environment

Filiz Çetin, Özden Demirkan & Şaban Çetin

pp. 233 - 248   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.11


This study aims to develop an attitude scale that will reveal preservice teachers’ attitudes towards classroom as an educational environment. Two references were applied in the process of writing the items to be included in the draft form of the scale: relevant literature and students’ opinions. 50 items were written in line with these two references, but upon the experts’ suggestions necessary corrections were taken into consideration and a draft form with 45 items was developed. Draft form of the scale was applied to a total of 473 students consisting of 361 females and 112 males who were studying at different levels of various teaching programs in the fall term of 2019-2020 academic year at Gazi Faculty of Education in Gazi University. Validity and Reliability analyses were done on the set of data obtained through the application of draft form. On the set of obtained data, exploratory data analysis (EDA) was carried out first for construct validity and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Exploratory data analysis (n1=263) and confirmatory factor analysis (n2=210) were performed in two separate groups. The results of exploratory data analysis (EDA) revealed that the scale consisted of 32 items and 4 sub-dimensions. Factor patterns formed by the items of attitude in the scale were named “Classroom as a boring learning environment”, “Classroom as a positive learning environment”, “Classroom as a peaceful environment” and “Classroom as a necessary learning environment” respectively. It was observed that this four-factor structure which constituted the scale explained 62.49% of the total variance of the scale. According to the results of the reliability analysis of the scale, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale was found .96, and for other sub-factors in the scale it was found .95, .90, .88, and .84 respectively. The results of confirmatory factor analysis which was conducted following exploratory data analysis revealed that adaptive values regarding the model were RMSEA, .066; χ2/df=2.1; SRMR=.05; IFI=.91; CFI=.91. These values regarding the scale which were obtained as a result of confirmatory analysis show that the structure of the scale was confirmed. 

Keywords: Learning, Learning Environment, Classroom, Developing Attitude Scale

Investigation of the Effects of a Peer-Led Team Learning Instructional Model (PLTL) in Teaching the Simple Electrical Circuits Subject on the Seven Principles for Good Practice

Fulya Zorlu & Yusuf Zorlu

pp. 249 - 266   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.12


The aim of this study was investigated the effects of applying a Peer-Led Team Learning Instructional Model (PLTL) to the prospective primary school teachers in teaching the simple electrical circuits subject on the seven principles for good practice. This study used the three-group Solomon Experimental Design. The study participants were sophomore level prospective teachers from the Department of Primary School Teaching at a state university. The control group (CG) was applied close-ended experimental method, while the experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) was applied the PLTL. The data collection tool of the study was used “Seven Principles Opinion Scale for Good Practice” (SPOS) developed by Bishoff (2010). The SPOS was used for the pre-test of EG1 and CG, and for the post-test of EG1, EG2 and CG. Accordingly to the post-test, The experimental groups applying the PLTL were better than the control group in the “Encouraging Student-Faculty Contact”, “Encouraging Cooperation among Students”, “Respecting Diverse Talents/Ways of Learning”, “Encouraging Active Learning”, and “Giving Prompt Feedback” principles. The PLTL is effective in attaining the objectives of the seven principles for good practice. It is recommended that further studies on PLTL should be conducted in order to contribute to the relevant literature by investigating the teaching experience that leaders gain in applying the principles necessary for a good education.

Keywords: Peer-Led Team Learning Instructional Model, Seven Principles For Good Practice, Science Education, Simple Electrical Circuits Subject

Multiculturalism in Social Studies Education Programs (2005-2018): A Qualitative Study

Suat Polat & Hatice Güler

pp. 267 - 289   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.13


The main purpose of this study is to examine the extent of the objectives, gains, learning areas, skills and values related to multiculturalism in the Social Studies Curricula in 2005-2018. The study was conducted in the form of qualitative research. Basic qualitative research that is one of the qualitative researches was chosen in the study.  The study group of the research consisted of 2005-2018 Social Studies Curricula and 13 Social Studies teachers. Document technique and semi-structured interview technique were used as data collection tools in the study. The descriptive analysis method was used for the analysis of the data obtained from the document analysis, and the content analysis method was used for the analysis of the data obtained from the semi-structured interviews. Some of the results obtained from the study are as follows: When the objectives related to multiculturalism included in the 2005-2018 Social Studies Curricula were examined, it was concluded that the objectives related to multiculturalism were included more in the 2018 curriculum. Both curricula were seen to have mainly focused on multiculturalism in the learning areas of “Individual and Society, Culture and Heritage, Global Connections.” In the 2005 curriculum, the gains related to multiculturalism were included in the 6th grade the most and in the 4th grade the least. In the 2018 curriculum, on the other hand, the gains related to multiculturalism were included in the 5th grade the most and in the 4th grade the least. While 53.3% (8) of the skills in the 2005 program were related to multiculturalism, 37.03% (10) of the skills in the 2018 program were related to multiculturalism. While 55% (11) of the values were related to multiculturalism in the 2005 program, 55.5% (10) were related to multiculturalism in the 2018 program. Additionally, teachers' opinions on the subject were presented in the content of the study.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Curriculum, Social Studies Curriculum, Education

Evaluation of Digital Content-Supported Transformation from Teachers’ Perspectives within the Scope of 2023 Education Vision

Elif Ertem Akbaş & Hayati Çavuş

pp. 290 - 309   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.14


The fact that the human-technology interaction is at its highest level due to the rapid developments in technology has also influenced research in the field of education. In this respect, in recent years, some important projects (e.g. FATİH, 2016) and studies like 2023 Education Vision (MNE, 2018) have been conducted in Turkey. The present study aimed to evaluate the transformation supported with digital contents and skills in the field of education in terms of its strong aspects, weaknesses, the related opportunities and suggestions from the perspectives of teachers within the context of 2023 Education Vision. In the study, the case study method, one of qualitative research approaches, was applied. The study group, which was determined using the purposeful sampling method, included 27 teachers from different fields of teaching who participated in the conference of “Our Educational Practices and 2023 Education Vision”. In the study, semi-structured interview questions prepared by four academicians expert who were in their fields and who organized the conference were used as the data collection tool. The qualitative data collected via the interviews were first grouped with SWOT analysis. Following this, the qualitative data transferred into the computer environment were analyzed using the content analysis method. The data examined in terms of their contents and meanings within the scope of SWOT analysis were gathered under four main categories: “strong aspects” and “weaknesses” of educational technologies and of the digital content, related “opportunities” and “suggestions against threats”. The results revealed that regardless of their fields of teaching, most of the teachers reported views about EBA (Education Information Network) for all the categories and that educational technologies and digital content involved both opportunities and threats. Considering the findings and the teachers’ views, the educational dimension of the study was discussed, and suggestions regarding how to make the transformation process more effective were put forward.

Keywords: 2023 Education Vision, Transformation Supported with Digital Content and Skills, EBA, Teachers’ Views, SWOT Analysis

Gifted Students’ Analogies towards Science and Arts Centres

Adem Doğan & Seyhan Paydar

pp. 310 - 335   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.15


This study investigated the gifted students’ analogical perceptions of science and arts centres (SACs). Qualitative research method has been adopted. The data were collected from 4th and 5th graders selected through the purposive sampling through an interview form developed by the researchers. The participant students’ analogical expressions for SACs were analysed through the content analysis method. The students were required to make analogies between SACs and eight themes (e.g. cars, games, occupations, clothes, subjects, stories, scientists and relatives) by justifying them. The content analysis results of their responses indicated that the gifted students held quite positive perceptions of SACs and that these centres fulfil the goals and objectives identified by MoNE.  SACs were mostly compared to speedy cars, challenging games that require use of mind and strategic thinking, warm clothes, occupations that require self-sacrifice, patience and dedication, numerical courses, close relatives, the most popular stories/ tales of the world literature and the scientists most of whom lived in 19th and 20th century. This study is important in terms of pointing out that there is a positive relationship between the attitudes of SAC students towards educational institutions and their academic success.

Keywords: Gifted Students, Analogy, Science and Arts Centre, Special Education

Examining the Self-Efficacy of Primary School Teachers and the Problems Encountered in Physical Education and Game Course

Hüdaverdi Mamak, Ahmet Temel & Murat Kangalgil

pp. 336 - 358   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.16


This study was conducted in order to determine the self-efficacy of primary school teachers and the problems that they encounter in physical education and game classes. The sample of study are consisted of 391 primary school teachers who were selected by stratified sampling method and working in Konya and Niğde provinces in the second semester of the 2018-2019 academic year. In research, 'Teacher self-efficacy belief scale' was used. In addition, teachers were asked open-ended questions about physical education and game lesson. According to the findings of the research, it was concluded that teachers are quite sufficient in the field. No difference was found between the self-efficacy scores by gender. Self-efficacy scores are significant in favor of those who do not need in-service training. Significant results were obtained in the sub-dimension of student participation in favor of teachers using physical activity card (PAC) in physical education and game lesson. This course which branch teacher should conduct were achieved meaningful findings in favor of the primary school teacher. The answers of teachers for open-ended questions were converted into frequency tables. According to the answers of the teachers, among the subjects that need in-service training; new teaching approaches, classroom management, special field courses and the use of technology in education have come to the fore. In physical education and game lessons, the movements of displacement, object control and balancing are acquisitions that teachers can do best. The course achievements that are forced in practice; are  designing games, using various strategies and tactics, designing appropriate programs to improve physical fitness, preparing a nutrition program to protect health. When the problems encountered in physical education and game lessons are examined, they are generally collected under three headings. These are that the school-environment is caused by the teacher and the student.

Keywords: Primary School Teacher, Physical Education and Game Lesson, Self-Efficacy, Achievement, In-Service Training, Physical Activity Card

Relationships between Power Distance, Organizational Commitment, and Trust in Schools

Tevfik Uzun

pp. 359 - 371   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.17


Power distance is important for the healthy execution of relations, interactions, and communication between managers and employees. Low power distance improves the quality of relationships, interactions, and communication between school administrators and teachers, while high power distance decreases them. The power distance that teachers believe to exist in school may be related to their organizational attitude, value and behaviour. In this context, the aim of the study is to examine the relationships between teachers' power distance beliefs and their organizational commitment and organizational trust. Research data were collected in Giresun, Turkey in 2018. The study group of the research consists of teachers working in public high schools. According to the results of the research, teachers' power distance beliefs are at “low” level. There are positive correlations between teachers' power distance beliefs and their organizational commitment and organizational trust. Teachers' power distance beliefs predict their organizational commitment and organizational trust. The results of the research are thought to contribute to the awareness of the importance of power distance of school administrators in terms of manager-teacher interaction.

Keywords: Power Distance, Organizational Commitment, Trust

Evaluation of Assistant Principal Roles and Jobs at School in the Context of Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

Abdullah Balıkçı

pp. 372 - 393   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.18


Organizations aim at achieving their objectives with their personnel. One of the personnel of a school, which is also an organization, is the assistant principal. Assistant principals are the personnel managing the school with the school principal. This study aims at presenting how assistant principals interpret their roles and jobs in managing the school by considering Henry Mintzberg’s opinions on the roles and jobs of administrators. This study was carried out with a qualitative research method and phenomenological pattern. Twenty assistant principals participated in this study. Interviews, observations, and documents were used in this study. There were two themes as a result of this study. These are the roles and jobs of assistant principals. Assistant principals have many roles and jobs in the school that are interrelated and complementary. These are bureaucratic and affect education. However, this is not something that assistant principals want. In addition to this, it was seen that the data collected from this study and the opinions of Henry Mintzberg generally supported each other. The main reason for not supporting each other is thought to be the scope of the current study. The last section of this study included recommendations.

Keywords: Assistant Principal, Role, Job, Henry Mintzberg

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Methods and Individual Learning Method on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Sub-Micro Level Conceptual Understanding at Equilibrium Chemistry

Seda Okumuş, Zehra Özdilek & Aysel Arslan

pp. 394 - 425   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.19


The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of cooperative and individual learning methods on the conceptual understanding at sub-micro level of pre-service science teachers (PST) in equilibrium chemistry. The study was conducted on 52 PSTs. A pre-test/posttest non-equivalent quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Data collection instruments used as pre- and posttest as a Module Test (MT) consisted of seven open-ended questions developed by the researchers. Although, participants were identified with a convenience sampling method, each groups were randomly assigned. For this reason, three study groups were selected and each implementation was randomly assigned. Groups was determined as Cooperative Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD, E1) and Reading-Writing-Application (RWA, E2) methods, and Individual Learning (IL, E3) method. The statistical analyses of the quantitative data were performed using Kruskal Wallis test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The data gathered with the MT were evaluated using content analysis. According to findings, there was not a significance difference among groups related to conceptual understandings at equilibrium chemistry. However, some misconceptions related to topic were decreased. Consequently, when three learning methods are used that it is more likely to misconceptions of the PSTs will be treated, while at the same time micro level understanding will improve.

Keywords: Cooperative Learning, STAD, RWA, Individual Learning, Equilibrium Chemistry, Conceptual Understanding

Investigation of the Relationship Between Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Attitudes and School Life Satisfaction

Hüseyin Özden Yurdakul

pp. 426 - 437   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.20


In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of students studying in secondary school to physical activity and their school life satisfaction. The relationship between middle school students' attitudes towards physical activity and school life satisfaction was tested by the structural equation model. A total of 299 students who study at secondary schools affiliated to Çanakkale central schools, 53.2% (n = 159) of whom are male and 46.8% (n = 140) of female, are the research group. Attitude scale to physical activity and school life satisfaction scales were used as data collection tool in secondary school students. It has been observed that socialization and Self-Trust dimensions, which are the sub-dimensions of attitude to physical activity, affect school satisfaction positively and significantly, and are statistically significant. As a result, physical activity environments affect students 'feelings of socialization and self-confidence positively, which is thought to affect students' school life satisfaction positively. To gain the habit of doing physical activities in schools, it can be suggested to increase the physical education lesson hours and to direct them to extra sports activities.

Keywords: Physical Activity, School Satisfaction, Attitudes, Socialization, Self-Trust

Learning How to Learn Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Mürşet Çakmak, Faysal Özdaş & Mehmet Ali Akın

pp. 438 - 455   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.21


Bu çalışmanın amacı, ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin öğrenme süreçlerinin araştırılmasında kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Araştırma 2018 yılında Mardin'de farklı ortaöğretim okullarına devam eden öğrenciler ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Anket yöntemi kullanılmış ve bu çalışmada basit rastgele örnekleme yöntemi ile örnekleme seçilmiştir. Bir madde havuzu oluşturmak için 10. sınıfta eğitim gören 26 öğrenciden öğrenmeyi öğrenme kavramı ve süreci hakkında bir deneme yazmaları istendi. Daha sonra literatür araştırılmış ve bu makaleden elde edilen verilerden 5'li likert tipi 66 maddelik bir taslak ölçek oluşturulmuştur. Taslak ölçek, uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda revize edilmiştir. Ölçeğin uygulanmasından sonra elde edilen veriler SPSS ve AMOS programları kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Analizde madde toplam korelasyonu, açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve güvenilirlik analizi tekniklerinden yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan analizlere göre ölçeğin 21 maddeden oluştuğu ve 5 faktörlü bir yapıya sahip olduğu ve açıkladığı varyant oranının% 52.630 olduğu ve uyum indeksi değerlerinin kabul edilebilir olduğu ve mükemmel bir uyum düzeyinde olduğu görülmüştür. Tüm faktörler arasında pozitif yönde ve orta düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu gözlenmiştir. Ölçeğin Cronbach alfa iç tutarlık güvenirlik katsayısı 0.655 ile 0.864 arasında değişmektedir. Sonuç olarak, elde edilen bulgulara göre 5 Likert tipi olarak hazırlanan Öğrenme Nasıl Öğrenilir Ölçeğinin ortaokula devam eden öğrenciler için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olarak kullanılabileceği anlaşılmaktadır.

Keywords: Learning How To Learn, Secondary Education, Scale, Validity And Reliability

The Mediating Role of Social Connectedness in the Relationship between University Students' Parental Acceptance / Rejection Perceptions and Loneliness Perceptions: A Structural Equation Model Study

Ayşin Satan

pp. 456 - 481   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.22


The aim of this research is to examine the mediating effect of social connectedness in the relationship between parental rejection/acceptance and loneliness of university students. A total of 387 university students of 271 women (70%) and 116 men (30%) constitute the sample of the study. The scales used are Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Scale - Short Form, Ucla Loneliness Scale and Social Connectedness Scale. In accordance with the main purpose of the study, the model proposed to explain loneliness theoretically was tested by the Structural Equation Model analysis. The findings obtained, indicate that the model has acceptable significance and that the model is statistically verified. According to the verified model; it is seen that the perception of adults' parental acceptance/rejection in childhood has an effect on loneliness. When the mediating effect of social connectedness is examined, in the model; it appears that the mediation role of social connectedness is verified.

Keywords: Loneliness, Parental Rejection, Social Connectedness

Students’ Metaphors on Formation of Molecules from Atoms

Engin Meydan

pp. 482 - 501   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.270.23


Chemistry as a discipline in general incorporates abstract concepts, which should be visualized through experiment- and application-oriented methods. It is a well-known fact in Turkey that chemistry class offered by simple and traditional methods cannot be understood by students at a satisfactory level. Such chemical subjects as atoms, molecules, and compounds include abstract concepts of this kind. The visualization of these structures is as strenuous as their teaching. Among the most arduous subjects is the teaching of the mechanism by which atoms form molecules, compounds, and many other structures by means of chemical and physical bonds. Students cannot conceptualize and understand such aspects as atom, molecule, compound, and mixture.  This study investigates how associate and bachelor’s degree students in the departments of social and natural sciences metaphorize the formation of molecules from atoms. The metaphors produced by the participating students were classified into eight themes for the purpose of the study.  All the created metaphors incorporate positive connotations. It can be proposed based on the metaphors that the subjects at stake can be metaphorized and thematized for the concretization thereof. Thus, learning becomes more permanent and effective.

Keywords: Atom, Molecule, Students’ Views, Metaphor, Formation of Molecules From Atoms