International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 17 Issue 3 (September 2022)

Original Articles

The Relationship Between Academic Risk-Taking Behaviours and Writing Concerns of Middle School Students

Elif Atalay & Esra Ekinci Çelikpazu

pp. 8 - 36   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.1


In this study, it was aimed to examine the relationship between middle school students' academic risk-taking behaviours and writing anxiety. This relational survey type research was carried out in the 2020-2021 academic year.  The sample of the study consists of 493 middle school students in a city in Turkey. The data of the study were obtained from the "Academic Risk-Taking Scale" and the "Writing Anxiety Scale". Correlation Analysis tests were used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the research, it was found that there is a moderately significant negative correlation between the academic risk-taking behaviours of middle school students and their writing anxiety. While there was no significant difference in the academic risk-taking behaviours of the students in terms of school type, grade level, number of pages in reading books and academic achievement scores in the mother tongue course, a significant difference was found in terms of the variables determined in writing anxiety.

Keywords: Academic risk-taking, writing anxiety, middle school students

An Evaluation of John Taylor Gatto's Opposition to Compulsory School Education

İhsan Topcu

pp. 37 - 56   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.2


Education has an important role in people's lives, both individually and socially. For this reason, it is accepted by almost everyone that education has a decisive power in the economic development and multi-faceted improvement of societies. From this point of view, education systems, which are among the most important institutional structures of the society, have been formed in order to provide a better education service to the individuals of all countries. Different approaches have been introduced on the establishment, functions and efficiency of education systems from past to present. These different approaches and perspectives can contribute to benefiting more from the power of education in increasing the effectiveness of education systems and providing all aspects of social development through education. However, completely opposing the education system and schools and arguing that it is unnecessary is incompatible with the reality of the life we live today. This study aims to make a scientific and academic evaluation of the criticisms of an American retired teacher named John Taylor Gatto on compulsory and public education. As it is known, John Taylor Gatto's popular book Weapons of Mass Instruction: A schoolteacher’s journey through the dark world of compulsory schoolıng (2009; in Turkish 2018) made an impact all over the world and started an important discussion compulsory education. With the publication of mentioned book, John Taylor Gatto's thoughts on compulsory and public education have recently become the agenda all over the world, as well as in Turkey. The aim of the study is to bring a different perspective to this debate, to put forward the necessity of compulsory and public education with its scientific justifications. It also aims to correct the wrong perceptions that emerged with the publication of the books by John Taylor Gatto. Case study, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. In this research, John Taylor Gatto’s views on compulsory education and schools, which he included in his books and writings, especially in his book, "Weapon of Mass Instruction", which has also been translated into Turkish, has been discussed and scientifically criticized. From the findings and evaluations, it has been concluded that Gatto's thoughts on education do not have a counterpart in today's and future world in many ways and do not comply with scientific facts.

Keywords: Critical pedagogy, Compulsory education, John Taylor Gatto, Public education, Education for the future

Written Expression Skills of Both Monoliterate, and Emergent Bilingual Primary School Students: A Comparison with Monolingual Students

Yusuf Kızıltaş

pp. 57 - 81   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.3


Many students learn Turkish as a second language in Turkey. These students, whose first language is Kurdish, learn Turkish at a certain level before starting school. As a result, these students become emergent bilinguals along with school life. On the other hand, some of these students almost do not use Kurdish in their lives and wholly turn to Turkish. Ultimately, all students whose first language is Kurdish continue their education in the same environment with students whose first language is Turkish. As a result, these children lag behind students whose first language is Turkish in many respects. They even lag behind students whose dominant language is Turkish and Kurdish as their first language. This research it is aimed to reveal the differences between the two student groups in the context of written expression skills. The effect of the dominant language difference, preschool education status and socioeconomic level on the written expression skills of primary school students were examined. The research group of 428 primary school fourth-grade students (girl: 201, boy:227) was determined by criterion sampling method. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the written expression skills of the students whose dominant language is Kurdish remained at a deficient level, and they made more spelling mistakes

Keywords: Monoliterate Bilingual, Emergent Bilingual, Primary School Students, Written Expression Skills

Determining Secondary School Students’ Knowledge Levels on Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Problems

Emine Aydın, Mahmut Selvi, Elvan İnce Aka & Mustafa Sarıkaya

pp. 82 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.4


The present study aimed to determine the knowledge levels secondary school students have on ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental problems within the context of a science class and to identify the relationship between their knowledge levels on these subjects according to gender and science course grades. The study applied the survey design, a quantitative research method. The participants for the study included 400 eighth-grade students from a public secondary school in Ankara, Turkey during the 2018–2019 academic year. The Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Problems Achievement Test (EBET) was used to collect the study data, and SPPS 17 software was used for data analysis. The students’ responses to EBET were evaluated based on Bloom’s Original taxonomy. The results revealed that the students had no difficulty in answering knowledge and comprehension questions, partial difficulty in answering application questions, and great difficulty in answering analysis questions. There was a positive, moderately significant relationship between the students’ science course grades and their scores on the knowledge and comprehension questions; however, no significant relationship was found between their science course grades and their scores on application and analysis questions. Regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive value of science course grades on the knowledge levels of ecosystem, biodiversity and environmental problems. The students’ knowledge and comprehension scores varied significantly by gender in favor of the female students, whereas their application and analysis scores did not vary significantly by gender.

Keywords: Ecosystem, biodiversity, environmental problems, Bloom’s taxonomy, secondary school students

Challenges and Solutions of Syrian Refugee Children in the Process of Acquiring Basic Language Skills

Halil Taş & Muhammet Baki Minaz

pp. 102 - 124   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.5


The aim of this study is to determine the problems experienced by Syrian refugee children in the 1st grade primary school in the process of acquiring basic Turkish language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and the solutions to these problems according to the views of teachers, parents and students. Since the most Syrian refugees in the world are in Turkey, this study was based on basic language skills in Turkish. This research was designed as a survey model. The study group of the research consists of 126 classroom teachers, 15 parents and 15 students. In the research, criterion sampling method was used to determine the participants to be surveyed, and snowball sampling method was used to determine the participants to be interviewed. The research data were collected with the data collection tool titled "Teachers' Opinions on Basic Language Skills" developed by the researcher and a semi-structured interview form. Frequency (f) and percentages (%) were used in the analysis of quantitative data, and descriptive analysis technique was used in the analysis of qualitative data. It has been concluded that Syrian refugee children have problems in describing the text they listen to determining the subject of what they listen, and answering questions about what they listen. In the study, it was determined that Syrian refugee children had severe problems related to the acquisition and use of basic Turkish language skills. It has been concluded that these children can be solved by providing basic Turkish language skills with contemporary approaches, methods and techniques enriched with appropriate materials and supported by technology and cultural elements.

Keywords: Turkish language, Turkish course, basic language skills, migration refugee children, literacy

The Relationship Between the Levels of Social Support That Middle and High School Students Receive during the Physical Activities and Their Happiness

Adem Kaya, Hüseyin Fatih Küçükibiş & Burhan Özkurt

pp. 125 - 139   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.6


This study aims to examine the relationship between the middle and high school students’ perceptions of social support they receive from their parents and peers during the physical activities and their happiness. Middle and high school students voluntarily participated in this research.  460 forms were obtained from the participants and accepted as data. The obtained data from middle and high school students were grouped, and the differences and relationships were analyzed. In the study, it was determined that the social support levels of middle school students for physical activities from their peers and parents were higher than that of high school students.  Moreover, it was concluded that as the level of received social support by students from their peers and parents for physical activities increased, their happiness levels also increased.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Social Support, Happiness, Peer, Parents

The Relationship Between Prospective Teachers’ Digital Literacy Skills, Attitude Towards the Teaching Profession and Academic Motivations

Eyup Yünkül & Ahmet Meli̇h Güneş

pp. 140 - 163   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.7


Within a process, which is intricate and multifaceted, such as teacher training it is crucial that pre-service teachers are well informed and have high academic motivations as well as cultivating positive attitudes towards their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship among undergraduate students' academic motivations, their attitudes toward the teaching profession, and their digital literacy abilities. A quantitative correlational research design was employed. 493 teacher candidates participated in the study. Convenient sampling approach, one of the non-random sampling techniques, was utilized while choosing the sample group. The results of the data analysis revealed a favorable correlation among teacher candidates' attitudes toward the teaching profession, their academic motivation, and their levels of digital literacy. Taking precautions to assist teacher candidates' academic motivation, their levels of digital literacy, and their attitudes toward teaching is advised.

Keywords: Academic motivation, attitudes, teaching profession, digital literacy

A Structural Model of Marriage Adjustment for Married Individuals

Ahmet Kara & Erdi̇ Kulbaş

pp. 164 - 181   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.8


The aim of this research is to test a structural model for married individuals. 215 Turkish married individuals [Agerange = 24-56, AgeMean =35.24, AgeSd = 7.44] determined by using the maximum diversity sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods, participated in the research. Data were collected with Scale of Meaning of Marriage (SMM), Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Marital Adjustment Test (MAT). Data were analysed with Two-Stage Structural Equation Modeling. A bootstrap analysis was performed for the significance of indirect effects. As a result of the analyses, the tested structural model was confirmed and it was determined that marital satisfaction had a full mediator effect between the meaning attributed to marriage and marital adjustment of married individuals.

Keywords: Marriage, marital satisfaction, marital adjustment, meaning of marriage

The Relationship of Reading Attitude with Reading Speed and Reading Comprehension

Taşkın Soysal

pp. 182 - 198   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.9


Accurate and effective reading depends on several variables such as the continuation of the reading activity at a certain speed, the understanding of what is read at a certain level, and having a positive attitude towards reading. In this study, research was conducted to determine whether there is any relationship between reading attitude and reading speed, and reading comprehension. A total of 400 students from the Turkish and Classroom Teaching departments of two different universities took part in the research carried out according to the relational screening method. After determining the reading speed and comprehension levels of the students, their attitudes towards reading were taken. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 21 program. As a result of the research, it has been determined that there is a positive and highly significant relationship between the average reading speed and the average comprehension level, between the average reading speed and the average attitude towards reading, and between the average comprehension level and the average attitude towards reading. The results obtained were discussed together with similar results in the literature.

Keywords: Reading speed, comprehension level, reading comprehension, reading attitude

How Management Styles Predicts School Culture: A regression analysis study

Cem Akın & Mustafa Erdem

pp. 199 - 221   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.10


The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between management styles and organizational culture in elementary schools. Relational survey model as a quantitative research methodology was employed in the study. The research population consists of 6058 school teachers working in public schools in Şahinbey and Şehitkâmil districts of Gaziantep in the academic year 2018-2019. The sample consists of 388 teachers determined by cluster sampling. The "Perceived Manager Management Style Scale" was used to measure management style, and the "Organizational Culture Scale" was used to measure organizational culture. As a result, it is found that school principals exhibit a collaborative management style and managers do not have authoritarian, resistant and indifferent management styles. Although supportive culture and success culture in schools were determined as dominant cultures, role and power culture was also in moderate levels. The views of male and female teachers about the sub-dimensions of administration style and organizational culture did not show significant difference yet, there are significant low and medium level relationships between management style sub-dimensions and organizational culture. Management style sub-dimensions are a significant predictor of organizational culture. Authoritarian management style had the highest correlation with power culture. Except for resistant management style, a significant relationship was found between management styles and success culture. Collaborative management style had the highest relationship with the culture of success. Collaborative management style had the highest relationship for management styles and support culture. One unit of change in the collaborativemanagement style predicted.51 units of change in the support culture.

Keywords: Management styles, Organizational culture, Predictive level

A Validity and Reliability Study on Developing a Scale for Assessing Classroom Teachers' Attitudes Towards Illustrated Children’s Books

Seyit Ateş & Gül Şebnem Altuner Çoban

pp. 222 - 237   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.11


The aim of this research is to create a scale to assess classroom teachers’ attitudes towards illustrated children’s books and to reveal the psychometric aspects of the scale. Between September 13th and December 22nd, 2021, data for the study were collected from classroom teachers in various provinces of Turkey via social networks. Data were collected from a total of 819 people, 517 of whom were included in the exploratory factor analysis in the first stage, while 302 of whom were included in the second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the second stage. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) done with the first sample group yielded a three-component construct with 20 items, ensuring the construct validity of the scale. A second-order CFA was conducted using the second sample group to give evidence for the construct. The convergent validity of the scale was examined with the average variance extracted (AVE) and combined reliability (CR) values, while the divergent validity of the scale was examined by comparing the values with the correlation coefficients among the factors. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cr α) and combined reliability (CR) values were used to assess the scale's reliability. The scale was found to be valid and reliable in measuring classroom teachers' attitudes regarding illustrated children's books as a result of these examinations.

Keywords: Attitude scale, classroom teachers, illustrated children’s books

An Action Research to Eliminate Mistakes in Multiplication and Division Operations through Realistic Mathematics Education

Alper Yorulmaz & M. Cihangir Doğan

pp. 238 - 262   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.12


In the current study, it is aimed to determine the activities that need to be done to eliminate the mistakes made by primary school fourth grade students in multiplication and division operations and to present solution suggestions for eliminating these mistakes. The study employed action research, one of the qualitative research methods. The study group was constructed by the criterion sampling method, one of the purposive sampling methods. The study group is comprised of 10 fourth graders attending a primary school in the spring term of the 2016-2017 school year in the city of İstanbul and making similar mistakes. A student information form, clinical interview form and student worksheets were used as data collection tools in the study. Activities prepared in line with the principles of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) were applied in order to eliminate the mistakes made by the students in the multiplication and division operations. When the mistakes made by the students in the multiplication and division operations were examined, it was revealed that the source of the mistakes was the operational, conceptual and problem situations. During the implementation of RME activities, it was determined that the mistakes of the students started to be eliminated. After the implementation, it was found that the mistakes of the students committed in the multiplication and division operations decreased. Thus, it can be said that RME is an effective application in reducing the mistakes in multiplication and division operations made by students in primary school.

Keywords: Multiplication operation, division operation, realistic mathematics education, mistake, primary school

Thinking about the Chemical Substances through Real-life Incidents: A Case Study on Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge on Various Dimensions of Laboratory Safety

Nalan Akkuzu-Güven & Meli̇s Arzu Uyulgan

pp. 263 - 291   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.13


Pre-service teachers who conduct experiments are faced with various risks in terms of physical, health and environment due to the chemicals they are exposed to in the laboratory classes. Working in a laboratory without knowing these risks causes accidents such as chemical spills, explosions and fires, and even individual injuries. For this reason, pre-service teachers should be trained about the importance of safety and the properties of the chemicals with using various learning strategies. In this context, we aimed to determine the knowledge about lab safety among the pre-service teachers through real-life laboratory accidents. This study, which focuses especially on the role of chemical substances in laboratory safety, was discussed with its various dimensions. 21 pre-service teachers taking the Laboratory Safety course and attending the Chemistry Teaching Program in a state university's the Faculty of Education in Aegean region (Turkey), participated in this research, based on the case study method. Worksheets containing cases related to laboratory accidents and semi-structured interview form were used as data collection tools. Considering the results of the research, we found that the pre-service teachers generally had a lack of knowledge on the chemicals' hazard classifications, physical, health and environmental hazards, pictograms, chemical properties, and safety precautions of chemicals within the frame of laboratory safety.

Keywords: Laboratory Safety, Chemical Substance, Hazard Classification, Accident, Pre-service Teacher