International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 16 Issue 4 (December 2021)

Original articles

Students and Teachers’ Points of View on Code-Switching in EFL Classes: A Balance or Imbalance Paradigm?

İslam Yıldız & Ayfer Su Bergil

pp. 8 - 29   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.1


This study aims to clarify whether the implementation of language alternation in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) has strengths or limitations from both teachers and students' points of view. By making use of both qualitative data which was conducted through structured interviews with 23 teachers in one of the provinces of Turkey as well as applying structured forms to 92 teachers from 34 cities in Turkey and quantitative data containing five-point Likert scale questionnaire collected from 226 students, the current research reports students’ stances towards teacher code-switching in EFL classrooms in Turkish secondary and high school context, and teachers’ language choice causes with inferable results. The data from the questionnaire were collated, and the SPSS program was used to calculate the descriptive calculations involving percentages and frequencies. The results of the study reveal that students and teachers tend to agree on the majority of questions. While students welcomed the teachers’ code-switching efforts in English lessons, the teachers advocated the balanced conduct of language switching, especially in terms of communication skills.

Keywords: Code-switching, Mother Tongue, English Language, EFL Teachers, Learners

In-Service and Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers’ Levels of Belief in Education: A Comparative Study

Tarık Balcı & Mehmet Yanık

pp. 30 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.2


The aim of this study was to comparatively examine in-service physical education teachers’ and pre-service physical education teachers’ levels of belief in education. This study, which was carried out with the participation of physical education teachers (n=266) employed in various cities of Turkey, as well as first grade (n=73) and fourth grade (n=64) pre-service physical education teachers studying at Balıkesir, Manisa Celal Bayar and Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Universities, was conducted using a survey model. The “Scale of Teachers’ Levels of Belief in Education” developed by Akın and Yıldırım (2015) was used as the data collection tool in the research. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffé’s test were utilised. As a result of the research, it was determined that physical education teachers and pre-service teachers partially believed that the general aims of education were achieved, while they believed that the aims of education related to socialisation and all-round development were achieved more than the aims of education regarding individual differences. In the study, it was found that pre-service teachers believed in education more than in-service teachers, and that teachers’ professional seniority was an important factor affecting levels of belief in education. In future research, qualitative studies and mixed design studies should be conducted in order to obtain more in-depth information related to revealing the reasons for in-service teachers’ and/or pre-service teachers’ partial and low levels of belief in education and to suggesting solutions. Furthermore, future studies with a correlational design aimed at determining the relationships of teachers’ levels of belief in education with their levels of organisational commitment, professional burnout, motivation and alienation and with their perceptions towards the profession will contribute to better understanding of the phenomenon of belief in education.

Keywords: Belief in Education, Physical Education, In-Service Teacher, Pre-Service Teachers

An Overview of Listening Skills of Secondary School Students: Barriers and Suggestions

Hatice Coşkun & Melek Uzunyol Köprü

pp. 49 - 72   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.3


This study investigates the listening skills of students at secondary school. In this context, this study focuses on identifying students’ listening problems according to teacher perspectives and examining the causes of these problems. It also aims to find out how teachers address these issues and the types of solutions they propose. In order to meet these objectives, case study with a qualitative research design was conducted. Participants were identified according to the purposive sampling method. Data were collected from ten teachers working at different secondary schools at a variety of levels using a criterion sampling approach. Data were also collected through semi-structured interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The study’s findings indicated that the secondary school students struggled to understand listening rules, listen to courses, comprehend what they listen to and increase their motivation during lessons. Additionally, the results indicated the causes of the problems, and of the types of suggestions that could be made to resolve them. Seven themes emerged in the study as a result of teachers’ perspectives, consisting of; the family, the environment, readiness, the speaker, the listener, education and listening materials. When the source of the listening problems is examined, the family structure and the lack of emphasis placed on the listening process by families, the lack of appropriate environmental conditions, the inability of students to be drawn to the listening material and the teacher, and the lack of awareness are highlighted. The outcomes of resolving these problems include providing the necessary learning environment and materials for increased listening, improving teacher self-development, creating an environment in which students can learn through doing, cooperating with family, school, environment and teacher and to eliminating the lack of education.

Keywords: Listening Skills, Listening Barriers, Suggestions for Listening Problems

The Effect of the Flipped Classroom Model on Pre-Service Teachers’ Digital Literacy and Digital Pedagogical Competencies

Serkan Aslan

pp. 73 - 89   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.4


This study aims to analyze the effect of the flipped classroom model on the pre-service social studies teachers’ digital literacy and digital pedagogical competencies. The study employed one group pretest-posttest design, one of the weak experimental models. The working group of the study consisted of 28 sophomore studying at the department of social studies teaching in a Turkish state university during the 2019-2020 academic year. This study employed “Digital Literacy and Digital Pedagogic Competency Scales” as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and multivariate variance analysis (MANOVA) were used during data analysis. The study results revealed that the flipped classroom model based activities had a significant impact upon the digital literacy and digital pedagogical competences of the participants. The study also examined whether there was a significant difference in pre-service teachers’ pre-test and post-test scores with regards to gender. A significant difference was identified across the pre-service teachers’ digital literacy post-test scores in favor of females. Based on the results, various recommendations were provided.

Keywords: Digital Literacy, Digital Pedagogical Competence, Flipped Classroom Model, Pre-Service Teachers

Analysis of 2015-2018 Life Studies Curricula Objectives Based on Marzano and Kendall Taxonomy

Gülsüm Yıldırım

pp. 90 - 109   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.5


The curriculum that changes according to the age conditions helps the individual adapt to society. One of the programs created in this context is the life studies teaching program. The objectives of the curriculums prepared gain importance in this context. This study aims to examine the 2015 and 2018 life studies curricula according to the Marzano and Kendall taxonomy; the document review method has been used. The objectives and explanations of the 2015 and 2018 life studies curricula, which were accepted by the Ministry of National Education, Board of Education and Discipline, have been examined as a document. For the analysis of the research data, the form objectives created by Marzano and Kendall have been used for evaluation. According to the results, 2015 and 2018 life studies teaching programs are generally included in the cognitive system according to Marzano and Kendall’s taxonomy. The objectives in the self-system are insufficient. In addition, while there is an objective in the 2015 curriculum in the metacognitive system, there is no objective in the 2018 curriculum. In the context of knowledge, the 2015 and 2018 curricula’ objectives include mental procedures and psychomotor procedures more than the information area. However, both 2015 and 2018 curriculum outcomes focus on mental procedures and psychomotor procedures of generally retrieval and comprehension levels.

Keywords: Life Studies Curriculum, Education Taxonomy, Marzano and Kendall Taxonomy

Social Skills Scale Development Study

Emine Merve Uslu & Salih Zeki Genç

pp. 110 - 126   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.6


The aim of this study is to develop a scale for assessing teachers' social skill levels. A total of 1064 teachers, including 243 kindergarten teachers, 465 primary school, 67 social studies, 113 Turkish teachers, 80 science teachers, 96 mathematics teachers, participated in the research voluntarily. "Social Skills Scale (SSS)" consists of a 5-point Likert type consisting of 36 items. As a result of the factor analysis varimax transformation, the scale items are collected under seven sub-dimensions and explain 54.73% of the total variance. The sub-dimensions determined are named as: 1) Social cohesion 2) Self-control 3) Verbal communication 4) Cooperation 5) Participation 6) Nonverbal communication 7) Conflict resolution.

Keywords: Social Skills, Teacher, Scale Development, Validity, Reliability

The Relationship Between Organizational Justice, Professional Motivation and Organizational Identification: A Study on Teachers

Sedat Alev

pp. 127 - 139   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.7


The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice, professional motivation and organizational identification. In this study, relational model was used. The population of the study consists of teachers from primary schools in the province of Gaziantep in Turkey during 2019-2020 academic year, and the sample consists of 368 primary school teachers. The data were collected through “Organizational Justice Scale”, “Professional Motivation Scale” and “Organizational Identification Scale”. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics about the variables were calculated, correlation and regression analysis were performed. According to the descriptive statistical results of the study, teachers' perceptions of organizational justice, professional motivation and organizational identification are at a high level. Organizational justice has a positive, moderate relationship with professional motivation and organizational identification. Besides, there is a positive and moderate relationship between professional motivation and organizational identification. As a result of the stepwise multiple regression analysis conducted to determine the relationship between professional motivation, organizational justice, and organizational identification, it was determined that professional motivation has a partial mediating role in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational identification. It is considered important to increase the motivation of teachers by treating them equally and fairly in the distribution of resources to identify with the school. Moreover, with the increase in motivation, it can be ensured that teachers increase their performance and identify with their organizations.

Keywords: Organizational Justice, Professional Motivation, Organizational Identification, Teachers

Moral Development in Early Childhood: Benevolence and Responsibility in the Context of Children's Perceptions and Reflections

Vakkas Yalçın

pp. 140 - 163   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.8


This study aimed to examine children's perceptions regarding the concepts of benevolence and responsibility in early childhood and the way they put them into practice. The study was designed according to the basic qualitative research method and consisted of 64 children between the ages of 4 and 5. The data were collected through interactive value stories, children’s drawings related to the relevant values, and semi-structured interviews. The data analysis presented remarkable results, the first of which is that preschool children may have not only result-oriented but also intention-oriented moral values. The second result is that the course of behaviours related to moral values is primarily directed towards family members. As the third result, preschool children's moral values were found to appear often in their relationships with people in need and with people who are much older. Finally, the fourth result indicates that children associate moral values not only with human beings but also with nature and plants, which is a significant indicator that universal moral thinking can develop in children of this age.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Values Education, Moral Development

Why Do University Students Prefer YouTube to Learn and Study?

Satı Burhanlı & Gülgün Bangir-Alpan

pp. 164 - 177   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.9


YouTube has over 2 billion users who watch YouTube videos regularly. It is one of the social media platforms that increase its popularity in the last years with its use in educational purposes in various grade levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that make university students use YouTube for learning and studying. Firstly, it looks into the reasons that make university students prefer YouTube for learning and studying. Secondly, it examines the factors that university students consider during content selection on YouTube. The qualitative research design methodology is used in the design of the study. Data is collected through the interviews that held on face to face. The study emerged that the reasons that motive university students to use YouTube in the learning process are individual learning needs, manageability, limitations of face to face education, and availability of conditions. Besides, the study showed that university students also consider some criteria while selecting content on YouTube. They mostly consider the appropriateness of content to their interest, popularity, thumbnail image, and reliability of sources. The results of the study can be helpful for content developers to understand the needs of university students in digital platforms. Furthermore, the results can give feedback to instructors on universities to understand the gaps in face-to-face education. Besides, the results also help to understand the mindset of university students during content selection in social media.

Keywords: YouTube, Content Selection, University Students, Studying and Learning

Good to Have an Ambitious Ranking Policy, but How about the Realities? Analysing the Ranking Goals for an Emerging Higher Education Hub

Adem Yaman

pp. 178 - 197   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.10


Within the global higher education structure, many nations have followed various strategies to become one of popular destinations for international students. Similarly, employing national strategy focusing on internationalisation, Turkey achieved to become an emerging regional hub as the tenth most popular destination for international students. Then, as its new national goal, Turkey recently announced ranking targets at the end of 2019 to have universities in the global top 100 until 2023. Therefore, Turkey’s national targets present a suitable case to determine the areas of priority that are need for development and improvement in selected universities by comparing the input-output status of Turkish universities with its international competitors. Benefitting from their ranking scores and website reports, financial and human resources and scientific performance of designated universities were compared to be able to evaluate the attainability of these challenging ranking goals. The results revealed that although financial power is critical for examined universities, without talented research-workforce no chance to seriously improve ranking performance for any university. Considering its mid-profile to attract well-known international researchers, it seems Turkey as well as other emerging economies have to raise their own stars. Possible recommendations were then discussed to expedite universities’ ranking performance.

Keywords: International University Rankings, National Ranking Policies, Turkey Ranking Targets, University Development Inputs, University Ranking Outputs

The Impact of Science Teaching based on Science-Technology-Society (STS) Approach to Elementary School Students

Sinan Çınar & Salih Çepni

pp. 198 - 217   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.11


The aim of this study is to find out effects of science teaching through Science-Technology-Society [STT] approach on elementary school students’ creative thinking skills, attitudes towards science lesson, and academic success. To this end, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without the control group was used among quantitative research models. The study particiants were composed of 6 classroom teachers who had previously taken in-service training [IST] on STS approach and their students (N=273) selected through random sampling. Study data were collected by using the Creative Thinking Skills Scale (CTSS), Science and Technology Course Attitude Survey [STCAS], and Academic Achievement Test [AAT]. The data were analyzed by conducting one-way ANOVA test with SPSS. The results showed that the students in STT classes could improve their creative thinking skills, attitudes towards science course, and academic achievement compared to their peers in the classes. It can thus be useful to encourage teachers to perform teaching based on approaches addressing science-tehcnology-society relation. As another recommendation, it is suggested to prepare professional development programs.

Keywords: STS Approach, Science Education, Elementary School Students, In-Service Training

Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Images and Misconceptions About Chemical Equilibrium

Gülseda Eyceyurt Türk & Ümmüye Nur Tüzün

pp. 218 - 233   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.12


Determining pre-service teachers’ images and removing their misconceptions with scientifically true ones are very important so that these teachers could bring up students without misconceptions. In the current study, it was aimed to highlight pre-service science teachers’ images and misconceptions about chemical equilibrium together and in detail. For this purpose, qualitative research was employed. The research was conducted on 20 pre-service science teachers educating at a university in middle Anatolia region. Worksheets were utilized as data collecting tools. In worksheets there was a question about making pre-service teachers draw four different scenarios for a given chemical equilibrium reaction at different times; at the beginning of the reaction, before the chemical equilibrium, at the chemical equilibrium, after the chemical equilibrium, but at a common temperature and then making them explain their drawings. Data was analysed through content analysis. The results lightened that pre-service science teachers’ chemical equilibrium concept images were inadequate since their mental images about the concept were scientifically wrong. On the other hand, the pre-service science teachers had different misconceptions. The most common misconceptions of pre-service science teachers were as “Diatomic molecules form atoms and then these atoms form new chemicals (f:10).”, “There are only products or activated complexes in the tank during and/or afterwards of the chemical equilibrium (f:15).”, “Atoms could disappear and/or reappear (f:14).”, and “Products are formed at the chemical equilibrium (f:17).”

Keywords: Chemical Equilibrium, Image, Misconception, Qualitative Research, Pre-Service Science Teachers

The Effect of Social Support Perception and Resilience Levels of Prospective Teachers on Academic Burnout during the Pandemic Period

Püren Akçay

pp. 234 - 254   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.13


While the Covid-19 pandemic caused a sudden transition to online education in higher education, university students faced many unexpected situations. In this direction, in this study, it was aimed to determine the resilience, academic burnout and perceived social support levels of teacher candidates during the adaptation process to online education and to reveal the effect of perceived social support and resilience on academic burnout. This study was designed according to the relational survey model and 'Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form' and 'Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support' and 'Short Psychological Resilience Scale' were used as data collection tools. The sample of the research consists of 367 education faculty students who are studying at a private university in the 2020-2021 academic year, determined by the random sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods. According to the results obtained from the research findings perceived social support and resilience variables together explain approximately 3% of the total variance in burnout.

Keywords: Academic Burnout, Burnout, COVID-19 Pandemic, Online Education, Perceived Social Support, Prospective Teacher, Resilience.

Development of a Rubric to Evaluate the Critical Writing Skills Levels of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students

Tufan Bitir & Erol Duran

pp. 255 - 273   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.14


In this study, it was aimed to develop a rubric for evaluating the critical writing skills of primary school fourth-grade students. The research was designed in quantitative research method and scanning design. The study group of the research consists of 215 students studying in the fourth grade of five different primary schools determined by the purposeful sampling method, taking into account their gender and socioeconomic status. Research data were collected during the development stages of the rubric and lasted for four weeks. In this process, opinions were received from 54 classroom teachers, 12 Turkish teachers, 8 doctoral students continuing their graduate education in the field of Classroom Education and Turkish Education, and 16 academicians who are experts in the field of Basic Education. In addition, the students in the study group were asked to write critical articles and the written products were evaluated through the developed scoring key. The collected data were analyzed with a statistical program. In order to ensure internal consistency in the research, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was determined in order to determine the reliability of the evaluations of the raters who scored the data. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was determined in order to determine that the dimensions and items in the developed rubric were items that were consistent with each other and that examined the same feature. As a result of the findings, it was concluded that there was a high level of consistency between the evaluations made by different raters. In addition, in line with the expert opinions received during the development of the rubric, It was concluded that the rubric exactly measured what was intended to be measured and the rubric was valid and reliable.

Keywords: Writing, Critical Writing, Rubric

The Relationships Between Global Citizenship, Multicultural Personality and Critical Thinking

Mehmet Melik Kaya

pp. 274 - 292   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.15


The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between global citizenship, multicultural personality and critical thinking in preservice teachers. The study group consisted of 363 preservice teachers who attend different departments of Faculty of Education in Kutahya. Data collection was done through Scale Universal Citizenship, Multicultural Personality Questionnaire and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Because the data exhibited a normal distribution because of preliminary analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation analysis of parametric tests and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. According to the findings, there is positive relationship between critical thinking and multicultural personality trends and global citizenship. In other words, as multicultural personality scores increased, level of global citizenship also increased. Or as critical thinking tendencies decreased, the level of universal citizenship decreased. In a society where people adopt universal values and can think critically, democracy, justice and tolerance become dominant. And in a globalized world where there is no critical thinking, consequences of wrong thinking and wrong decisions will end up with global violence, intolerance, injustice, and war that has high destructive power.

Keywords: Global Citizenship, Multiculturalism, Critical Thinking

An Examination of Graduate Theses Completed Between 2010 and 2020 about Academic Procrastination

Tuğçe Yardım & Gizem Engin

pp. 293 - 309   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.16


This study aims to analyze graduate theses completed between 2010 and 2020 about academic procrastination. Qualitative survey method was used in the study. In the study, document analysis was used as the analysis method. After an initial search made using “academic procrastination” keyword in Council of Higher Education Thesis Center's Web Page (CoHE-thesis) 97 theses completed between 2010 and 2020 were found and analyzed. Primarily, graduate theses were analyzed according to their types, topics of study, methods, number of samples and sample group distribution. Afterwards, the methods, sample distributions and sample numbers of the theses according to their types were examined. Majority of these 97 completed theses are postgraduate theses (n=83), secondly doctoral theses (n=12), and thirdly specialty in medicine theses (n=2). As for the methods used, relational method (n=68) was seen to be the most used method after which comes descriptive method (n=15), thirdly interventional method (n=6), fourthly descriptive and relational method (n=3), and fifthly relational and interventional method (n=1). As for sample groups, the most researched sample group was university students (n=49). The most researched topics in theses on the subject of academic procrastination were educational and socio-demographic characteristics.

Keywords: Procrastination, Academic Procrastination, Document Analysis, Postgraduate Theses, Cohe-Thesis