International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 16 Issue 2 (June 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345



Original Articles

Development of Curriculum Changes Perception Scale and Teachers’ Perceptions of Curriculum Changes

Gökhan Kayır & Çetin Toraman

pp. 7 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.1


This study aims to develop a scale to measure teachers' perceptions of curriculum changes. The experimental form created for this purpose was presented to the experts for their opinions. The content validity rates of the items were determined in line with the feedback from experts. Items with a content validity rate of less than .80 were excluded from the study. The 11-item trial form was applied to 162 Turkish teachers from different branches. Sampling was selected through convenient sampling method. With the Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA), a two-dimensional structure consisting of 11 items, namely “Resistance to Program Changes” and “The Effect of Program Changes on Learning Environments”, was reached. The relationship between the subscales of the scale was examined in the analyzes and it was found that the factors were in a significant relationship with each other. It has been verified as a result of the analysis that the sub-dimensions are components of a structure that includes positive and negative perceptions called teacher perceptions against curriculum changes and that they together form a superstructure. It was determined that the model's goodness of fit indexes were quite high. Confirmatory factor analysis also confirmed the EFA results. The internal consistency coefficient obtained for the whole scale was determined as .95.

Keywords: Program Changes, Teacher Perceptions, Scale Development

Entrepreneurship Skill in The Context of Teaching Programs: Case of Poland

Murat Tarhan

pp. 25 - 45   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.2


It can be said that entrepreneurship education is effective in realizing career plans that will shape the lives of individuals. This situation causes people to give importance to entrepreneurship. The knowledge and skills gained in the entrepreneurship education process benefit people's lives. Entrepreneurship education has an undeniable effect on human life and the success of countries in social, economic, cultural and technological fields. For this reason, countries attach importance to entrepreneurship education and include this course in their education and training programs. In this study, the education system of Poland, which is one of the successful countries in research results such as PISA and TIMSS, is discussed in terms of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship education in Poland is compulsory at some grade levels. Therefore, it is considered important to evaluate the entrepreneurship education practices in this country. Qualitative research method was used in the research. The data were obtained with the document review form, descriptive analysis and content analysis methods were used in the analysis of the data. The findings were interpreted under three headings: 1. The content of the teaching programs within the framework of entrepreneurship education. 2. Evaluation of learning outcomes in teaching programs within the framework of entrepreneurship education. 3. Evaluation criteria of students in the process of entrepreneurship education.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Skill, Education, Teaching Programs, Entrepreneurship in Poland, Poland

Prediction of Fear of COVID-19: Meaning in Life and Psychological Resilience

Önder Baltacı

pp. 46 - 58   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.3


The aim of this study is to examine the meaning in life and psychological resilience levels of university students as predictors of their fear of COVID-19. The research was carried out using the relational screening method, which is one of the quantitative research methods. The study consists of 475 university students, of which 353 women (74,3%), 122 men (25,7%), who are studying at different higher education institutions in Turkey and agree to participate voluntarily in the study. In the research; COVID-19 Fear Scale, Life Meaning Scale, and Brief Psychological Resilience Scale were used. In the study, while a negative non-significant relationship was found between university students' fear of COVID-19 and their meaning in life, in a negative way significant relationship was found with their psychological resilience levels. In addition, it has been showed that the life meaning and psychological resilience levels of university students explain 6% of their fear of COVID-19. The research results were discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions were made.

Keywords: Fear of COVID-19, Meaning in life, Psychological Resilience

An International Student Learning Turkish Through Cultural Interaction: A Narrative Research

Enes Yaşar

pp. 59 - 79   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.4


This study aims to determine the relationship between cultural interaction and language in teaching Turkish as a foreign language and reveal its contribution to the learning process. Therefore, in this study, the cultural exchange of a Lebanese international student studying at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University was evaluated in the context of language learning performance. The narrative research design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The primary purpose of narrative research is to examine individuals' lifestyles through the stories they produce. In this study, the student's social environment, school, and friendship relations were taken into account. His daily life's contributions to language skills, academic life, and social relations were tried to be measured. The target language has been observed in the cultural life experienced by the international student. Thus, through narrative research, the student's cultural world was entered as a language learning experience.  In the study, the student's vocabulary learning, communication skills, and the ability to use language in academic life were emphasized. The semi-structured interview method was used as a data collection tool in the study. After deciphering each interview, attention was paid to ensure that the data obtained were sufficiently clear. The descriptive analysis method was applied to the collected data. As a result, it has been observed that international students who learn Turkish as a foreign language hugely benefits from cultural interaction in their foreign language proficiency, communication skills, and non-verbal behavior. It has been determined that international students behave pragmatically while communicating and classify words semantically in this process. It has been remarked that vocabulary learning, and pronunciation skills develop faster in cultural life, and their anxiety states decrease as they move away from the classroom setting. It was also understood in the study that different language families affect language acquisition. Besides, it has been determined that students who have difficulties comprehending language logic experience some degree of delay in their speaking skills.

Keywords: Culture, Communication, Narrative Research, Language Interaction, Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

An Investigation of the Professional Values of Elementary Teachers

Nermin Karabacak & İsa Korkmaz

pp. 80 - 119   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.5


The professional values of teachers in the Turkish education system have been discussed in terms of competencies of professional standards. It is important to describe the adoption level of the professional values of elementary teachers based on the views of experts. The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the professional values of elementary teachers in the Turkish education system. The elementary teachers’ professional values were determined with a qualitative approach. For this purpose, data were collected by using semi-structured interviews with faculty members, school inspectors, school principals, and elementary teachers. According to the findings, the elementary teachers’ professional values were: recognition of students and individual-centered education, planning and organization of the learning and teaching environment, evaluation and monitoring of students, professional development and responsibility, and cooperation with the school, families and community.

Keywords: Professional Values, Teaching Profession, Elementary Teacher, Semi-Structured Interview

Identification of In-Service Teacher Education Policies in Turkey and Investigation of Their Reflections on Practices

Ömer Faruk Abide & Yücel Gelişli

pp. 120 - 138   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.6


The general purpose of this study is to identify the target policies for in-service education in Turkey’s main policy papers and documents of teacher training and development institutions, and to investigate reflections of these policies on practice. The study was based on historical research, which is one of the qualitative methods. The data were collected through document analysis and analyzed with content analysis. Regarding the research results, it was determined that target policies for in-service training activities in the field of teacher training in Turkey were offered within two main frameworks. When the reflections of these policies on practice were evaluated accordingly, it was revealed that putting policy theories into practice was generally achieved; however, some policies were offered as specific to several cities without being reflected across Turkey.

Keywords: Teacher Training, in-Service Education/Training, Policy Papers

Examining Social Studies Prospective Teachers’ Active Citizenship Self-Efficacies within The Scope of Levels of Empathy and Acceptance of Differences

Nalan Altay & Ali Ekber Gülersoy

pp. 139 - 159   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.7


As is known, social studies course is taught from 4th grade to the end of 7th grade within the scope of basic education. Social studies course, focused mainly on raising active citizenship, is given (lectured) by teachers who received training on this field. This study was carried out to reveal social studies prospective teachers’ active citizenship self-efficacies within the scope of levels of empathy and acceptance of differences. For this, scales of active citizenship self-efficacies, of empathy level and acceptance of differences were applied to 378 in total of prospective teachers who are studying at faculty of education at two state universities.  Data obtained of scales were analysed using SPSS package software. Relationship of the applied scales with faculty, class, rural-urban origin was examined. Independent t test for unrelated two samples, and one-way analysis of variance for unrelated k-sample were carried out, and multiple regression analysis was performed to reveal predicting situation/state of level of active citizenship self-efficacies by level of empathy and acceptance of differences. As result of the analysis, it was found that prospective teachers’ active citizenship self-efficacies and level of empathy were high; that of acceptance of differences was very high. According to this, empathy and acceptance of differences explain the situation/state of active citizenship self-efficacies by 24%. In terms of multicultural education, empathy and acceptance of differences are effective in raising active citizens. active citizenship requires not only participation in politics, but also high acceptance and empathy for different segments of society.

Keywords: Social Studies, Active Citizenship, Empathy, Acceptance of Differences, Prospective Teachers, Regression Analysis

Investigating Secondary School Music Teachers' Views about Online Music Lessons During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Sıtkı Akarsu

pp. 160 - 178   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.8


In education systems, learning/teaching activities designed based on a specific curriculum for a specific age group are carried out following a work schedule. As long as conditions permit, the work schedule continues without interruption. However, crises such as pandemics disrupt this schedule and lead to problems in the planning and timely-execution of educational processes. The present study aimed to investigate secondary school music teachers' views about online music lessons during the COVID-19 pandemic and to offer outputs that will contribute to the implementation of distance education activities, which are expected to be more widespread in the future.  The study employed the general screening model. The study group comprised 24 music teachers working in the central district of Kastamonu, a city in the north-west of Turkey. An interview form was developed to obtain the music teachers' views about the conduct of online lessons. Necessary permissions were obtained, and the interview form was distributed to the participants via e-mail. The data obtained from the interview forms were tried to be interpreted within theme tables by taking the opinions of the experts. The study employed the content analysis method, one of the qualitative data analysis methods. The study found that the majority of secondary school music teachers thought that distance education was not suitable for music lessons. It was also determined that most of the participants had no prior experience with distance education, had difficulty using instruments in online lessons, and had synchronization problems in all music activities. Furthermore, internet connection problems, low motivation on the student side, the inefficiency of online lessons, digital fatigue, and the risk of children being exposed to harmful content on the internet emerged as other problems encountered by the participants.

Keywords: Covid-19, Music Lesson, Distance Education, Secondary School

Turkish Education System from the Eyes of Future Teachers: Metaphorical Perceptions

Esra Tekel & Özge Öztekin Bayır

pp. 179 - 207   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.9


The aim of this study is to determine preservice teachers’ metaphorical perceptions regarding the following concepts: school, school principal, Turkish education system, teacher and student. This qualitative study was designed according to the principles of phenomenological model. The participants of the study are 160 preservice teachers attending the Education Faculty of a state university located in Mid-Anatolia region of Turkey during the Spring semester of 2019-2020 academic year. The data was collected by asking the participants to complete the following sentences “I liken “school” (and others) to …. because…” The data were analyzed through content analysis. The results of the study revealed 4 themes for school, 5 themes about school principal, 4 themes about Turkish Education System, 4 themes for teacher and 4 themes about student. Teacher candidates generally likened school, school principal, Turkish Education System and student to negative things, while they likened teacher to positive things.

Keywords: Metaphor, School, School principal, Turkish Education System, Teacher, Student

Analysis of Manager and Teacher Opinions on the Management of School Risks in the Framework of the Internal Control Risk Management Model

Ömer Faruk Ak

pp. 208 - 245   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.10


In order for the educational processes in schools to be carried out as designed, all internal and external elements of the school should be in harmony and cooperation. In order to achieve this harmony, it is necessary to determine the situation of the school correctly and to manage the risks defined as uncertainty and opportunities for the future. The most important condition for making the right interventions are against risks are to develop measures by taking advantage of the experiences of people who are exposed to risks and who are most affected by these risks. In this way, the effectiveness and efficiency of the school can be increased. In this study conducted in this context, the opinions of school administrators and teachers on the measures that can be taken for risks that are considered to be of high importance in schools were examined. The study groups of the study consist of school administrators and teachers working in public high schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Niğde city center. According to the results of the research carried out in qualitative design, regular inspections and risk analyzes of schools are among the measures that can be taken against risks with high scores, that the administrators appointed on the basis of merit are open to communication, fair, competent and impartial, and school staff create a corporate culture based on love, respect and mutual trust and the recommendations to respect disciplinary rules come to the fore.

Keywords: Risk, Risk Management, School Management, Internal Control, Strategic Plan

An Intercultural Study on the Characteristics of Mother Tongue Education Course Books’ Content

Berker Kurt

pp. 246 - 275   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.11


The purpose of this research is to set the characteristics of the contents of the course books that are prepared for the lessons of mother tongue education in secondary schools in different countries. Within the frame of the purpose, the content of the course books in Germany, Austria, Finland, Northern Macedonia, Hungary and Turkey were analyzed in three aspects. The first of all is about which sections are included in the general content, the second is about how the classification of the content was made and finally the third one includes how the language skills and the fields of learning are placed in the content. Figured in a quantitative way and the document of the research in which the content analyzed is composed by the 23 course books used in the countries that are mentioned above. In the analysis of the data 3 arguments and a checklist that enables to make a systematic evaluation consists of 28 items is used. As a result of the research, it is confirmed that the content of mother language course books in countries differ from each other due to the general properties of content; while classifying the course books generally multiplied structure dominated by thematic, functional and grammatical segmentation, it has been determined that all language skills, vocabulary teaching and grammar, both theoretical and practical, are included in the books. At the end of the study, it is recommended to take the course books in Germany and Hungary as an example while preparing the Turkish course books.

Keywords: Mother Tongue Education, Course Books, Content, The Checklist Method

Investigation of Project-Based Learning Method in Teaching Programming in terms of Academic Achievement, Cognitive Load and Behavior Change

Fatma Uca Öztürk, Muzaffer Özdemir & Durmuş Özbaşı

pp. 276 - 294   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.12


This study aims to reveal how project-based teaching method affects students' achievement, cognitive load and behaviors in programming teaching. In the study, the pretest-posttest, unequaled control group quasi-experimental model, which is one of the experimental models, was used. The participants of the study were sixth grade students who take the elementary school Information Technologies and Software lesson (N = 55). Achievement test, cognitive load scale and behavior management tool ClassDojo were used as data collection tools in the study. In the experimental group, the subjects were taught with project-based teaching method (student-centered and with teacher guidance). Besides, subjects in the control group were taught with traditional teaching method (teacher-centered). The implementation process took six weeks. Two-Factor ANOVA for Mixed Measures was used to examine the difference between the achievement of the groups. At the end of each lesson, the cognitive load scale was applied to the groups and the data obtained was analyzed by using the Cramer V Coefficient. During the study, the students got positive and negative scores according to their behaviors in the classroom, and the significance of the difference between the two percentages was tested according to their positive behavior percentages. As a result of the study, it was found that the academic achievement and in-class behavior scores of students who learned programming with project-based teaching method differed significantly from those who learned with the traditional method. In addition, it was concluded that project-based teaching method used in programming education did not make a significant difference on students' cognitive load.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, ClassDojo, Behavior Management, Programming Education, Project-Based Learning

The Effects of COVID-19 Process on Time Management of Foreign Language Teacher Candidates

Sibel Cengizhan

pp. 295 - 312   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.13


In this study which was conducted to determine the effects of the COVID-19 process on time management of foreign language teacher candidates, qualitative design was used. The study group was formed by criterion sampling, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods. The criteria determined were for the participants to work, to have pedagogical formation training online, and to have previously had face-to-face training. Accordingly, 35 foreign language teacher candidates participated in the study. A semi-structured interview form consisting of five questions was used to collect the data. Content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data and themes were reached from the codes. From the data obtained, it was concluded that the plans made about education in the COVID-19 process could not be followed due to the inability to perceive time, the process negatively affected time management as it created psychological pressure and wasted time, this changed the perception of time by making the time to pass quickly, that there were motivation problems arising from the focus and lack of explanations about the lessons and family factors and that time traps related to excessive computer use, watching movies-series, and excessive communication were encountered. At the same time, it was determined that the COVID-19 process has positive effects on preventing wasting time due to the traffic problem, creating a chance for individuals to spend more time for themselves and providing a more flexible studying environment. Regarding the negative effects of the COVID-19  process on time management, it is recommended that teacher candidates, who assume a great responsibility especially in the field of education, receive training on stress coping, distance education and time management in order to avoid or be affected less by the negative effects such as pandemics without field limitation.

Keywords: Teacher Candidates, Time Management, COVID-19, Motivation, Time Traps, Time Perception

Assessment of 4th Grade Students’ Problem-Solving Skills in Terms of Various Variables

Cafer Çarkıt & Mehmet Özenç

pp. 313 - 329   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.14


Problem solving is one of the basic skills needed by individuals today. An individual who has attained problem-solving skills can both overcome difficulties in daily life and be successful in professional business life. In this respect, problem solving is considered as a skill that children should attain from an early age. Many variables are effective in the process of teaching problem solving skills. In this study, 4th grade students’ perceptions of problem-solving skills were assessed according to the variables of sex, receiving preschool education, parental education status, family type and person helping with school work. Employing the quantitative research method, the study used the descriptive survey design. The Problem-Solving Inventory developed for elementary school children was used to collect data. The inventory is a 5-point Likert type scale consisting of 24 items and three dimensions. The study universe was 4th grade students attending public schools in the central districts of Gaziantep. Because of the size of the universe, transportation, economic difficulties and lack of time, the study was conducted with a sample determined by simple random sampling method, one of the random sampling methods. 744 4th grade students participated in the study. The data of the research were analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 program. According to the study results, no difference was found in students’ problem-solving perceptions according to the sex variable. However, students’ problem-solving perceptions differ according to the variables of receiving preschool education, mother’s education level, father’s education level and family type. Also, it was concluded that having someone who helps students with school work makes a significant difference in their problem-solving perceptions. The study results were discussed within the framework of the relevant literature, and late various recommendations were given.

Keywords: Problem Solving, Student, Perception, Variable, Assessment

Evaluation of Teachers’ Motivation and Curriculum Autonomy Levels

B. Barış Yıldız, Gökhan Günay & Fatih Mutlu Özbilen

pp. 330 - 353   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.15


The aim of this research is to evaluate teachers’ motivation and curriculum autonomy levels. The research is quantitative and descriptive and designed according to the survey model. The sample of the research consisted of 340 teachers who have been reached by simple random sampling method who have been worked in public primary and secondary schools in Istanbul. Motivation Scale developed by Gagné, Forest, Gilbert, Aube, Morin, and Malorni (2010) and adapted into Turkish by Çevik and Köse (2017) has been used to determine teachers’ motivation levels. Teachers’ curriculum autonomy levels have been determined with The Teacher Autonomy Scale developed by Yolcu (2019). According to the research results, teachers’ motivation and curriculum autonomy levels are high. It has been examined whether the motivation and curriculum autonomy levels of teachers differ significantly according to the variables gender, professional seniority, educational status and the number of projects participated in professional life. It has been found that the levels of motivation differ significantly according to gender and the levels of curriculum autonomy differ according to number of projects participated in professional life. Finally, the research has revealed that there is a medium-level, positive and significant relationship between teachers’ motivation and curriculum autonomy levels.

Keywords: Motivation, Teacher Motivation, Curriculum Autonomy

An Investigation into the Views of Refugee Students’ Teachers on Their Subjective Well-Being: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Nejat İra, Eylem Yalçınkaya Önder & Tuğçe Gül Çetin

pp. 354 - 365   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.16


The negative effects of natural and social issues on individuals have necessitated the discussion of the concept of subjective well-being as a major health concern. Teachers' subjective well-being has a crucial role in the functioning of the education system. This qualitative descriptive study aims to examine the views of refugees’ teachers on their subjective well-being. The data obtained in the study were collected with semi-structured interviews. The data were collected from seven teachers working at a public primary school in Çanakkale, Turkey in the fall semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. The analyses of the semi-structured interviews with the teachers of the refugee students produced four subjective well-being themes – i.e., family relationships, communication with refugee students, cooperation with parents, and working conditions. The data revealed that teacher's good relationships with the refugee students’ family members and parents, culture-sensitive education-oriented communication with students, and working conditions with a supporting school environment were key to enhancing subjective well-being of the refugees’ teachers. This result presented a crucial implication for policymakers to prepare in-service training for the population of the interviewed teachers.

Keywords: Subjective Well-Being, Primary School Teachers, Refugee Students, Primary Schools

The Analysis of the Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Loneliness in Science and Art Education Center (Bilsem) Students

Alev Orhan & Eda Gürlen

pp. 366 - 381   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.17


The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between internet addiction and loneliness levels of the gifted high school students studying at the Turkish Science and Education Center; the relationship analysis is carried out on the basis of different variables. As the goal is to present the current situation, descriptive survey model is preferred and used in the study. Internet addiction scale and UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale are used as data collection tools. Unrelated groups t-test is used while analyzing the obtained data to determine if there is a meaningful difference between internet addiction and the variables. Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney-U test are preferred to see if there is a meaningful difference between the UCLA loneliness scale and the variables. At the end of the research process, it is found that the gifted high school students studying at the Science and Art Education Center didn’t have internet addiction; however, according to the findings, they experience a high level of loneliness. Finally, according to the findings of the research study, the variables of gender, daily internet use period, and parents’ education level didn’t cause any meaningful difference in the internet addiction level and in the loneliness state of the gifted students.

Keywords: The Gifted, Internet Addiction, Loneliness

Civics Education in Higher Education: “Project Citizen” Sample

Talip Öztürk, Anatoli Rapoport & Filiz Zayimoğlu Öztürk

pp. 382 - 401   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.345.18


Project Citizen is an interdisciplinary curriculum for students, youth organizations, and adult groups that encourages citizens’ competent and responsible participation in local and state governments in about 35 countries worldwide. In this article, based on an example of Project Citizen activities done with university students, the application stages were examined, and the opinions of the students who applied were analyzed. The research was carried out with 38 students studying at the education faculty of a university in the United States during the 2018-2019 academic year. In the study, the projects prepared by the students in the activities were analyzed with the qualitative analysis program MAXQDA. As a result of the research, it was observed that the students needed comprehensive and detailed information at the beginning stage of Project Citizen, the projects they produced generally consisted of problems in their own lives, and they had the most difficulties in the public policy section while preparing projects. However, they found the project production process effective, efficient, and enjoyable.

Keywords: Project Citizen, Civics Education, Student Opinions