International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 16 Issue 3 (September 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373



Original Articles

Evaluation of the Child Book “Melody” by Turkish Preservice Teachers in Terms of Child Rights

Arzu Çevik

pp. 7 - 22   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.1


The purpose of the present study was to analyse and evaluate a book considering suitability with children's rights. More specifically, it was aimed to answer the research problem of  “To what extend is the book named Melody suitable for child rights according to Turkish pre-service teachers?” in detail. The present quantitative study was designed based on descriptive research model. The sample of the present study was composed 105 sophomore pre-service teachers enrolled in Turkish teacher education program. They were selected based on criterion sampling strategy. The data were collected through “Text Evaluation Scale for Child Rights” developed by Söylemez (2018). The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques such as arithmetic mean, mode, frequency, percentage, and standard deviation. Moreover, normality of the data was tested by skewness-kurtosis coefficient and Komogorov-Simirnov test. The findings were reported based on pre-service teachers’ evaluations of the book related to a child excluded from school activities because of her disability. Based on findings, it was observed that pre-service teachers could evaluate the book with respect to children's rights through a literary book effectively.

Keywords: Child Rights, Descriptive Research, Pre-Service Teachers, Turkish Education

The Effect of Using Smart Boards in Science Lessons on Middle School Students' Attitudes Towards Smartboards and Reflective Thinking Skills

Mirac Furkan Bayar & Uluhan Kurt

pp. 23 - 38   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.2


The aim of this study is to determine the demographic variables that affect middle school students' attitudes towards smart board and their reflective thinking skills and the relationship between these two variables. For this purpose, relational survey model, one of the quantitative research approaches, was used. The sample of the study, in which the appropriate sampling method was used, consists of 348 students studying in three different middle schools in Yakutiye district of Erzurum. Demographic information questionnaire, "Smart Board Attitude Scale" and "Reflective Thinking Scale" were used as data collection tools in the study. According to the findings of the research, it was determined that the students' smart board attitudes and reflective thinking skills did not change in terms of gender.. On the other hand, students 'smart board attitude levels and reflective thinking skills do not differ significantly in terms of parents' educational status. Finally, a medium positive correlation was found between students' smart board attitude levels and reflective thinking skills.

Keywords: Smart Board, Attitudes, Reflective Thinking Skills, Middle School, Survey Method

Preservice Classroom Teachers' Applications of Science Experiments with Cooperative Learning Model: A Mixed Design Research

Ayten Arslan

pp. 39 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.3


This study aimed to determine the effect of a cooperative learning model (CLM) on preservice classroom teachers’ attitudes towards science experiments. The sample consisted of 45 students in the department of primary education of the faculty of education of a public university in the 2017-2018 academic year. The sample was divided into two groups: experimental (n=24) and control (n=21). The experimental group received an education based on a CLM, while the control group received an education based on the conventional method specified by the curriculum. The study employed a mixed research design and consisted of two parts: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative part, an semi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. In the qualitative part, phenomenology was used. The quantitative data were collected using the Scale of Attitudes Towards Science Experiments (SATSE) and analyzed using a t-test. The qualitative data were collected using an interview questionnaire and analyzed using content analysis. The experimental group had a significantly higher mean SATSE score than the controls. The experimental group also had a higher mean posttest than pretest SATSE score, which was statistically insignificant. The control group had a significantly lower mean posttest than pretest SATSE score. Content analysis showed that the CLM improved some participants’ attitudes towards science experiments. They were more interested in science experiments and enjoyed participating in them more, and believed that the CLM made science experiments fun and easier to understand. However, some other participants stated that the CLM did not affect their attitudes towards science experiments.

Keywords: Cooperative Learning Model, Science Experiments, Science Laboratory, Preservice Classroom Teachers

Interactive Metadiscourse Markers in the Turkish Articles on Science and Social Sciences

Mustafa Onur Kan

pp. 56 - 66   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.4


This study aims to identify the interactive metadiscourse markers in the main sections of the articles (introduction, method, findings, results, discussion and conclusion) in the fields of science and social sciences. Designed as a descriptive research, this study employs the survey model. The articles analyzed in this study are a total of 16 articles, 8 science and 8 social sciences articles selected from the science and social sciences journals at DergiPark. The study group of this paper includes 54,253 words, 16,301 of which are in the articles on science and 37,952 are in the articles on social sciences. To achieve, this study draws on Hyland and Tse’s framework of metadiscourse model. The data are analyzed through descriptive analysis method. A Mann-Whitney U test is performed to find out whether there is a significant difference in the use of metadiscourse markers identified in the descriptive analysis of the articles on science and social sciences. The analysis indicate that more interactive metadiscourse markers are used in the articles on social sciences compared to the articles on science; yet, this difference is not significant. Furthermore, the use of code glosses is significant for social sciences; nonetheless, there is no significant difference in the use of other interactive metadiscourse markers.

Keywords: Academic Writing, Metadiscourse, Interactive Metadiscourse, Turkish Scientific Texts

Developing Visual Literacy Skills in Teacher Education: Different Ways of Looking at the Visual Images

Vedat Özsoy & Sevcan Saribaş

pp. 67 - 88   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.5


This article attempts to use different ways of looking that help classroom and visual art teachers analyze the meanings attributed to visual images, thereby enhancing their visual literacy skills. In the study, holistic multiple-case sampling was employed in the context of case study method as each group of teachers was individually considered as an analysis unit and their analysis of visual images through different ways of looking was evaluated in a holistic way. The participants of the study comprised of a total of 508 teachers who attended teacher training workshop of the Project titled ‘The Implementation of Visual Culture Theory on Primary and Secondary Visual Arts Courses.’ The data were collected with worksheets, artistic drawings and participant diaries and analyzed inductively.  The data were presented in three themes: analyzing visual elements, approaching the visual contextually, and determining the contributions of visual experience. The results denoted that classroom and visual arts teachers interacted with images through a series of questions related to different ways of looking at visual images, questioned visual representations, artistic components and sub-meanings and created various meanings in terms of social, economic, psychological and cultural contexts, thereby increasing their visual literacy skills.

Keywords: Visual Culture, Visual Literacy, Teacher Education, Visual Art Education

A Qualitative Assessment on 'My School Rize Project'

Arzu Küçük & Nagihan Yıldırım

pp. 89 - 113   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.6


The use of out-of-classroom and/or school teaching environments has become increasingly important in recent years and is included in the 2023 educational vision document of the Turkish Ministry of National Education. Within the scope of this new vision of the document, provincial directorates of national education have started to plan various activities aiming at bringing teachers out of classes and/or especially schools. One of them is the "My School is Rize Project". In the scope of this project; a guide teaching material was prepared for the matching of course acquisitions with various out-of-school settings in Rize province with the participation of one representative teacher from all branches from pre-schools to high schools. The first researcher was one of the participants of this project. This study aimed to present the views of the teachers who had worked on the preparation period of this material. Based on the qualitative paradigm, the data were collected through semi-structured interviews from the twenty teachers at the end of the project. The data obtained from each question were subjected to descriptive analysis after being transcribed. The results were interpreted in line with the codes and categories that emerged from the analysis. In line with the critical results of the study, some suggestions were made to various stakeholders such as national education directorates, teachers, and also researchers to use out-of-classroom and/or school teaching environments.

Keywords: My School is Rize Project, Out-of-School Learning, Teacher Education

A Metaphorical Approach: How are the Concepts of Principal, Inspector and Curriculum Perceived?

Neşe Ertok & Azize Ummanel

pp. 114 - 126   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.7


The proper and thorough functioning of the education process is based on the cooperation of the elements in education. Among the elements that should cooperate and act in harmony are teachers, school administrators and experts in educational management and supervision. Further, a curriculum is needed for the education process to proceed in a planned manner. This study aims to explore the metaphorical perceptions of teachers concerning the concepts of principal, inspector and curriculum. A qualitative research design was adopted in this study. The study group was formed through convenience and purposive sampling methods, and the study was conducted with 25 primary school teachers working in Northern Cyprus. A two-stage form was used to identify the metaphorical perceptions of the teachers. The collected data were analysed through content analysis method. They considered principals as the leader and manager of the school they worked in while stressing moderate or rigid attitudes of certain principals. Associations related to the concept of inspector were mostly about guidance; however, they also mentioned the negative characteristics of the inspectors they encountered regarding human relations. Finally, the concept of curriculum was perceived as a guiding adviser and as having a difficult, complex and restrictive structure. In the light of the results, it is recommended that principals be supported as regards human relations, managing relationships and communication, benefiting from guidance services in this regard. In the light of the results, it is recommended that principals and inspectors be supported as regards human relations, managing relationships and communication, benefiting from guidance services in this regard. Teachers are primary practitioners of the curriculum, and attempting to implement a challenging curriculum will reduce the efficiency and quality of education.

Keywords: Metaphor, Perception, Principal, Inspector, Curriculum

Examination of Faculty of Sports Sciences Students’ Unethical Behaviours In-classroom: A Mixed Research Approach

Emrah Aslan & Aynur Yılmaz

pp. 127 - 149   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.8


This study aims to determine the level of unethical behaviours (UBs) of students studying in the field of sports sciences. In this research, the explanatory sequential design was used for mixed research approaches where quantitative and qualitative data collection tools were used. The quantitative part of the study attended 465 Sports Science Faculty students in Kirikkale University during the fall semester of 2017-2018 academic year. Following the quantitative research qualitative data were obtained with five scenarios prepared by the researchers. As a result of the research, it was seen that UBs differ according to gender, class level, and the department of education. In the scenarios presented in the qualitative section of the research, it was determined that students who have higher Unethical Behaviours Climate Scale (UBCS) scores tend to apply more sanctions to the students when they are teachers. It has been observed that male students are more likely to have UBs than women.  Not using technological tools in the lessons was defined as UB. The results of the study showed that the source of student UBs could be the teachers or the students themselves.

Keywords: College Student, Content Analysis, Media Tools, Scenario, Unethical Behavior

The COVID-19 Pandemic: Teacher Candidates’ Views regarding the Virus and Vaccination Process

Muhammed Salman, Mustafa Öztürk Akcaoğlu & Muammer Ergün

pp. 150 - 166   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.9


In order for societies to normalize in educational, economic, social and mental health areas, the COVID-19 pandemic must be ended as soon as possible. Currently, the most critical factor in eliminating the pandemic seems to be the vaccine. Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions and is a cornerstone for communicable disease prevention. Both current teachers and teacher candidates should be competent in the field of health literacy as well as in the education and training process. In this study, we tried to reveal the views of teacher candidates regarding COVID-19 and its vaccines based on the studies reporting that anti-vaccination increased in individuals with more education. Six hundred thirty-eight teacher candidates participated in the study. The research data were collected through an 11-item questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and cross-tabulation analyzes. Research findings mainly showed that vaccine acceptance was low, and most of the participants thought the virus is artificial. Another finding of the research revealed that most of the participants who complied with all the rules regarding COVID-19 did not get the virus; however, it was seen that nearly all of the participants who caught COVID-19 had an infected individual in their family. Given the importance of vaccination, measures should be taken for vaccination hesitation and rejection.

Keywords: Teacher Candidates, Vaccine Hesitation, Vaccine Rejection, COVID-19 Pandemic

The Role of Parents in Children’s School Readiness

Sema Öngören

pp. 167 - 190   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.10


The aim of this research was to examine parental practices aimed at supporting children’s school readiness in social, emotional, cognitive, linguistic and self-care domains.  A case study design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the research. The study group of the research included 25 participants. The participants were determined with the maximum variation sampling type of purposive sampling method. A semi-structured interview form consisting of two parts was used as the data collection tool in the research. The findings obtained in the study were analysed with the content analysis method. The research findings revealed that for supporting children’s school readiness in social terms, parents performed practices related to friend relationships, social activities, educational activities, family interaction and giving responsibility, while for emotional support, they engaged in oral communication, emotional support, spending time and doing activities. It was revealed that for supporting children’s school readiness in cognitive terms, number activities, book reading, games and oral activities were performed; for language support, conversation, book reading, games and feedback were practised; while for support in terms of self-care, practices aimed at fostering habits, giving responsibility and being a role model were carried out.

Keywords: Preschool, School Readiness, Parent, Child, Development

Examining the Relationship Between Prospective Turkish Teachers` Public Speaking Anxiety and Digital Speech Tendencies

Yusuf Mete ELKIRAN

pp. 191 - 208   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.11


This research aims to determine the relationship between prospective Turkish teachers` public speaking anxiety and digital speaking tendencies. In this context, 181 prospective teachers from different grades studying in the Turkish language teaching program of a state university in the west of Turkey were examined. The relational surveying method, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was used. "Public Speaking Anxiety Scale" and "Digital Speaking Tendency Scale" were used as data collection tools in the research. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the data showed normal distribution, so independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA analyzes were used in the study. In addition to them, arithmetic mean and standard deviation values ​​were used. According to the results, it is seen that prospective Turkish teachers` public speaking anxiety levels and digital speaking tendencies are at the moderate level. Furthermore, it was concluded that public speaking anxiety levels and digital speaking tendencies did not show a significant difference according to gender, grade level, the average number of books read in a year and time spent on the internet in an average day. Turkish teachers should be given training and courses in order to reduce the anxiety of speaking in public and to raise awareness. Speech anxiety can also be prevented by adding the cause or causes of speech disorders and solving errors in the curriculum at all education levels. Therefore, it has been concluded that there is a positive and low-level significant relationship between prospective Turkish teachers' public speaking anxiety and digital speaking tendency.

Keywords: Digital Speech, Speaking Anxiety, Turkish Education

A Cultural and Artistic Approach to Early Childhood Science Education: Shadow Play

Erdinç Öcal, Abdulhamit Karademir, Özkan Saatçioğlu & Hatice Büşra Yılmaz

pp. 209 - 244   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.12


Attitudes towards science and scientific perspectives in the future depend on early childhood science experiences. Preservice teachers who are provided with the opportunity to develop positive attitudes and self-efficacy towards science teaching before they enter professional life are more likely to help preschoolers develop positive attitudes towards science in their professional life. The aim of this 12-week study was, therefore, to determine the effect of a shadow play workshop on early childhood preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards science teaching and to investigate their workshop experiences and application processes. This study employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. The sample consisted of 24 first-year early childhood preservice teachers. Quantitative data were collected using the Early Childhood Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Science Teaching (TSAS) and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) and were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and the dependent sample t-test. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews and observations and were analyzed using content analysis. Results showed that shadow play had a positive effect on participants’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards science teaching, indicating that shadow play is an interesting, fun, and effective material that can be used in early childhood science education to turn abstract concepts into concrete forms. Results were discussed with reference to literature, and recommendations were made for future studies.

Keywords: Early Childhood, Science Education, Shadow Play, Teacher Education, Arts in Science

Investigating Relationship Between Democratic Attitudes and Social Justice Beliefs of Pre-Service Teachers

Gökhan Kılıçoğlu & İlknur Şentürk

pp. 245 - 271   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.13


The number of studies that evaluate and discuss the concepts of democracy and social justice in Turkey from the perspective teacher training, education policies and practices is extremely limited. Thus, the present study attempts to determine democratic attitudes and social justice beliefs of pre-service teachers and whether these variables differ based on gender, age, family income level, and parental education level variables. The present study also aims to test the relation between the democratic attitudes and social justice beliefs of pre-service teachers using structural equation model. 483 pre-service teachers were included in the study sample. According to the study findings, it was concluded that democratic attitudes and social justice beliefs of pre-service teachers are medium level and these variables does not differ based on demographic variables. It was also identified that the democratic attitudes of pre-service teachers are significant determinant of their social justice beliefs. The concepts of democracy and social justice were discussed in depth as regards teacher education policies, programs and practices, and recommendations are provided for future implications.

Keywords: Democratic Attitudes, Social Justice Beliefs, Teacher Training, Teacher Education, Pre-Service Teachers

STEM-Based NOS Teaching on 7th Grade Students’ NOS Views

Günkut Mesci & Eda Erdaş Kartal

pp. 272 - 298   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.14


The aim of the study is to improve students’ nature of science understandings while integrating nature of science aspects into appropriate science-technology-engineering-mathematics (STEM) activities. In this study, four STEM-based contextualized nature of science activities are developed during the 4 weeks study. The sample of this study consists of eighteen 7th grade students. The data are collected the views of nature of science questionnaires (VNOS-D), follow-up interviews, and classroom observations. All data are analyzed holistically to create a profile of students’ views for the targeted aspects of nature of science with using content analysis. The analysis showed that 7th grade students have generally naive views of the targeted nature of science aspects before participating in the 4-week study. After STEM-based nature of science teaching, all students improved their views of nature of science. STEM-based explicit-reflective nature of science teaching may be an alternative approach to improve students’ nature of science views, and it is recommended to use this approach in the future studies.

Keywords: Science Education, Nature of Science, Scientific Literacy, STEM-Based Teaching

Turkish Adaptation of Online Teaching Effectiveness Scale

Metin Aşçı & Remzi Yıldırım

pp. 299 - 315   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.15


With this study, it is aimed to adapt the Online Teaching Effectiveness Scale into Turkish Language. The adaptation process has been done within four study groups. The first group took part in the study after having the Turkish form of the scale as required according to the translation steps. The study has been done with the MCBU Faculty of Education during the 2021 Spring Term. With the first study group, language validity was ensured with 30 participants by applying the Turkish and English versions of the scale in an interval of two weeks. According to language validity findings the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation value has been found above .70. Then pilot study has been done with second group with 62 participants. The total correlation values of the items are between .55 and .80. The third group consisted of 436 participants and after second run the CFA results are found like that; χ² / df = 3.582, RMSEA = .80, SRMR = .35; CFI = .95; TLI = .94, NNFI = .95. With the third study group the validation study has been finished and continued to reliability study. The fourth and the last group which consisted of 96 participants and the applications has been done in an interval of three weeks. According to the Cronbach’s Alpha values each of the dimensions and the total of the scale have points between .70 and .97. The test – retest values are between .72 and .94. Based on the findings the Turkish version of the scale is valid and reliable for usage.

Keywords: Online Teaching, Distance Learning, Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness, Instructor Effectiveness

An Analysis of the Content Knowledge Elective Courses of the ELT Departments: A Suggested Syllabus

Melis Şenol & Kürşat Cesur

pp. 316 - 335   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.16


This research study took its sprouts from the reform implemented by the Council of Higher Education (CoHE), Turkey in 2018. The recent update has focused not only on the deficiencies of the existing programme but also enhancing the number of the elective courses up to 25 per cent. Correspondingly, CoHe suggested thirteen “Content Knowledge” electives along with granting authorization to universities to add six more electives on demand. Originated with these decision-making exigencies, this two-phased study was planned to disclose the favoured elective of 1093 EFL teachers in the first phase while the focus on the second phase changed direction to a syllabus design on the relevant elective with the guidance of teacher educators. The first phase of the research exploits a mixed method sequential exploratory design involving qualitative and quantitative research paradigms revealing “Current Trends in ELT” as the most favoured elective course, consequently. In the following phase, a further step was taken, and 62 teacher educators were consulted regarding the content of the course. Having analysed the responses by open-coding technique, the theme ‘technology integration’ was found out to be teacher educators’ main concern. Based on this data, the targeted topic-based syllabus was designed around the suggested sub themes of technology integration and ultimately fine-tuned through the lenses of two experts. The study also presented a compilation of teacher educators’ responses which should carefully be scrutinized and utilized by the policy makers and decision-making parties.

Keywords: Current Trends In ELT, Elective Courses, Content Knowledge Courses, Syllabus Design

Development of the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-school Children

Hakan Şahin

pp. 336 - 349   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.17


This research was aimed to develop the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-School children. A descriptive research was conducted with two study groups. The scale is based on teachers' assessment for preschoolers aged 3-6. During the development process of the form, the theoretical structure was examined and expert opinion was take for the prepared draft. The descriptive research model was used in the research. The research has two study groups. Within the scope of the research, there were 250 preschool teachers in the first group and 260 in the second group. The construct validity was determined as well based on AFA and DFA. The corrected item-total correlations and Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient were calculated in order to determine the reliability of the answers given to the scale items. The KMO and Barlett test have showed that the factor analysis is suitable for the data set. It was determined that the items in the scale has clarified 48% of the total variance. With the data acquired as a result of the analyzes, it was determined that the 21 items showed a one-dimensional structure. The Cronbach ‘s alpha coefficient for the scale was determined as 0.939. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the items in the final form of the scale vary between 0.483 and 0.744.  As for the factor loading values of the items it differs between 0.38 and 0.41. Since the T value is found to be significant it showed that there were a significant relationships between the observed and latent variables.  As a result of the calculations, a valid, reliable and useful measurement tool that can be used in the literature was developed, based on the teacher’s assessment it is hoped that the scale will fill the gap in this field.

Keywords: Preschool, Anxiety, Teachers’ Assessment

Understanding De Certeau’s Concepts of Strategy and Tactics in Relation to the Educational Policy Analysis

Aznavur Demirpolat

pp. 350 - 362   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.18


Due to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the spread of production and consumption paved the way for consumption, especially excessive and luxury consumption, ceasing to be the privilege of aristocrats and other upper social classes. With the development of modern capitalism, the bourgeoisie/middle classes, which started to rise in the West, especially in America and Europe alongside the aristocracy in many spaces, began to utilize consumption and objects of consumption as a manifestation of their own class differences and privileges just like the aristocracy did. Many nineteenth century sociologists, notably Weber, Simmel, and Veblen, approached this process “positively” with great hopes. However, by the twentieth century, French sociologists, especially Lefebvre and members of the Frankfurt School, were pessimistic to modern consumer society and consumer culture. This pessimistic approach, as can be seen in the example of the Frankfurt school, described the prevalence of mass production and consumption in the modern era as the “end/death of the individual”. Contrary to this pessimistic view, de Certeau proposes that consumers who are considered to be passive spontaneously transform any kind of products and production objects imposed on them by the dominant order and/or capitalist system into artistic forms by means of (different) ways of using and reproducing those objects in everyday life. Certeau elaborates the ways of action and production created by the consumer against the “strategies” of the system in daily life as “tactics” of the user/consumer. Therefore, this study aims to reveal Certeau’s original approach to modern consumer society and to try to explore his views on this subject through his two basic concepts, namely “strategy” and “tactics”. This study also tries to illustrate that De Certeau’s analysis of modern consumption culture and his concepts of strategy and tactics offer new perspectives to those who are working on education policies.

Keywords: De Certeau, Consumption, Strategy, Tactics, Education Policy

Social Services in the Context of 2018 Social Studies Curriculum and Textbooks

Kenan Baş

pp. 363 - 398   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.19


The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate which subjects related to "Social Services" are covered in the Social Studies textbooks in grades 4th, 5th 6th and 7th according to the Learning Domain / Unit and Subject headings in the Social Studies curriculum revised in 2018. The document analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in this study. The study was conducted on the 4th, 5th 6th and 7th grade Social Studies textbooks, which were approved to be taught in public schools by the Ministry of National Education in the 2020 and 2021 academic year. The obtained data were analyzed by content analysis technique. When the results of the study were evaluated in general, it was observed that the subjects described were in a clear and understandable way in terms of language and wording appropriate for the students’ levels. In the Social Studies curriculum and Social Studies textbooks, while the subject headings related to “Social Services” are mostly included at the 4th grade level in terms of subject diversity, it was observed that children’s rights and refugee issues were covered at the four grade level as well (4th, 5th 6th and 7th). It was observed that specifically within the scope of the project works carried out at the 4th grade level in schools, citing the cases of the "Talking Medicine Box" developed by students for disabled citizens, one of the target groups of "Social Services" the "Lifeguard Balloon Bracelet" in the 4th grade textbook, which would minimize the loss of life in drowning incidents constituted an important example to the students in terms of being sensitive and conscious citizens in society within the scope of the Social Studies course. However, it was also observed that “Drug-Substance Addiction and Animal Abuse”, that were among the important subject headings of "Social Services" were not included at any class level, and violence against women was rarely addressed. It was recommended that children would start to grow awareness from an early age if the knowledge and information on these issues was taught appropriately considering the development levels of the students.

Keywords: Social Studies, Social Services, Textbook, Child Abuse, Rights