International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 19 Issue 2 (June 2024)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046



Original Articles

Investigation of the Relationship Between Occupational Personality Types, 21st-Century Skills, and Teaching Motivation

Sinan Çelikbilek

pp. 7 - 21   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.1


The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational personality types, 21st century skills and teaching motivation. The study was conducted in the descriptive relational survey model, one of the quantitative research methods. The study group consisted of all the students attending the Physical Education Teaching Department at Faculty of Sports Sciences of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University. A total of 148 (F=59, M=89) students were included in the study. The questionnaire method was employed to collect the data in the study. The questionnaire consists of four parts: a personal information form in the first part and three scales in the following three parts. In the second part, there is the “21st Century Skills Self-Efficacy Perception Scale” consisted of 42 items, in the third part, there is the “Occupational Personality Types Inventory” consisted of 30 items and in the fourth part, there is the “Teaching Motivation Scale” consisted of 12 items. SPSS v22 program package was used in the analysis of the collected data. As a result of the study, a significant correlation was found between occupational personality types and 21st century skills self-efficacy perceptions, between the six personality types of occupational personality and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and between 21st century skills self-efficacy perceptions and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. According to the results of regression analyses, occupational personality types had a significant effect on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Keywords: Occupational personality types, 21st century skills, teaching motivation, physical education teaching

Relationship between Democratic Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Implementing Cooperative Learning: A Cross-sectional Study of Pre-service Science Teachers

Özgecan Kırık

pp. 22 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.2


Pedagogical methods shape students' grasp of democracy. Cooperative learning, by fostering democratic values in classrooms, empowers students for active civic participation.  This approach is seen as ideal, suggesting pre-service teachers using it will hold positive democratic attitudes. This study seeks to determine how attitudes towards democracy and implementing cooperative learning differ among pre-service science teachers at various grade levels (n=207), and how these attitudes correlate with each other. Additionally, the study aims to investigate how the relationship between attitudes towards democracy and implementing cooperative learning changes across grade levels. A cross-sectional design was employed. Data was collected using the Collaborative Learning Scale to measure the attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning and Democratic Perceptions and Attitudes Scale to measure democratic attitudes. The findings revealed that pre-service teachers’ year of training has no influence on their democratic attitudes and their attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning. However, participants consistently exhibited strong democratic attitudes and attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning, with a non-significant increase across grade levels. These findings suggest a widespread support for democratic principles in future classrooms and a belief in the value of cooperative learning as an instructional approach and their high expectations of success when using this method. Furthermore, there is a strong, positive correlation between democratic attitudes and attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning at all grade levels. This means that pre-service teachers who value democratic principles in the classroom are more likely to view cooperative learning strategies favorably. These findings highlight a strong link between pre-service science teachers' democratic values and their openness to using cooperative learning. The correlation coefficient increases with higher training years. As pre-service science teachers progress through their training program, the focus on democratic education practices might increase.

Keywords: Democratic attitudes, Cooperative learning, Pre-service science teachers

The Effectiveness of Family-Centered Teaching in Developing Self-Care Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Esra Erbaş & Atilla Cavkaytar

pp. 43 - 62   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.3


Teaching of self-care skills with the participation of families at home, which is the natural environment of the child, contributes to effective and permanent results. Even though it is preferred that the family take an active part in teaching, most parents who plan to work with their children have difficulties in how they teach. The previous studies demonstrate that when adequate support is provided to parents, they can teach their children the skills they need. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a family education program developed for teaching self-care skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. A mother and her child with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The study was designed with multiple probe with probe conditions across behaviors/skills which is one of the single subject research designs. The finding demonstrates that the mother was able to teach self-care skills (hand washing, toileting, and dressing) by using the least to most prompting teaching method and following the procedure properly during the teaching period. Additionally, the mother expressed her satisfaction with the teaching sessions. The results concluded that she realized the effect and importance of the systematic and planned teaching.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, self-care skills, family education, least-to-most prompting, family-centered teaching

Students' Views on the Use of Cryptology Methods Education Contexts

Sercan Özer & Levent Çetinkaya

pp. 63 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.4


This study aimed to gather the opinions of middle school students regarding the utilization of cryptologic methods in education. The research was designed using the method of case study, a scientific research approach, and data was collected through a semi-structured interview form. The semi-structured interview form was developed by the researcher with the input of experts. The study focused on the effects of incorporating cryptologic methods within the context of the Information Technologies and Software course. The research was conducted with approximately 105 middle school students in Tekirdağ province, Turkey, and was completed through the use of the semi-structured interview form. Following the interviews conducted with the students, the data obtained from their responses was analyzed and categorized into codes. Based on the findings, students expressed the view that the use of cryptologic methods in lessons would contribute to their long-lasting and rapid learning, enhance their problem-solving skills, and that presenting cryptologic methods through various teaching techniques would increase their interest and motivation, thus leading to enjoyable and effective learning experiences. On the negative side, students mentioned that they might encounter difficulties in learning cryptologic methods and that these methods did not capture their interest. As a result of the analysis of the answers obtained from the interviews with the students, it can be argued that engaging, sustainable, and rapid learning tends to consistently capture students' attention and enhance their focus on the educational program. The 21st-century student learning skills encompass the development of problem-solving and computational thinking abilities, enabling students to think critically, conduct research, brainstorm, and connect puzzle pieces of clues to formulate solutions. The further integration of cryptologic methods within the curriculum holds significant potential for fostering enjoyable and enduring cognitive transfers in students' learning activities.

Keywords: Cryptology, Information Technologies, 21st century skills,