International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 18 Issue 3 (September 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600



Original Articles

A Critical Analysis of the Concepts of Identity, Nation, Nationalism in Museum Studies

Martina Riedler Eryaman

pp. 8 - 20   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.1


National identity is a complex and contested issue, and it is often debated in the fields of social and cultural studies. Museum collections, and the way they are presented and interpreted, are closely linked to national identity. National museums, as symbols of national unity, can manipulate perceptions about dominant ideologies and the individual's place in society. This article aims to deepen our understanding of how national museums negotiate and construct national identity by critically analyzing the theories and concepts of nation, nationalism, and national identity.

Keywords: Identity, Nation, Nationalism, Museum Studies, Education

A Qualitative Study with University Students on the Excessive Use of Social Media

Özlem Tolan

pp. 21 - 49   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.2


This study examines university students’ social media usage from different perspectives. The participants consisted of 29 students, 17 female and 12 male, studying in different faculties and departments of Dicle University. The data were obtained through semi-structured interviews conducted by the researcher. The thematic analysis produced five meta-themes regarding university students’ use of social media, which include interpersonal relationships, emotions, basic psychological needs, problems caused by social media use, and the impact of the use of social media on the self. Each meta-theme was divided into subthemes, categories, and codes; participant statement excerpts were presented. The qualitative findings were discussed in light of the literature, and recommendations were made.

Keywords: Excessive social media use, qualitative research, university students

Effectiveness of School Readiness Programs for Preschool Children: A Meta-Analysis Study

Aysel Çoban, Ensar Yıldız, Hatice Selcen Aslan, Ayşegül Öğütcen, Özge Koca & Fatih Kaynar

pp. 50 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.3


The current study adopted meta-analysis method to determine the effect of school readiness programs on preschool children. The researchers scanned national (i.e., Turkish) and international databases for studies conducted using experimental and quasi-experimental methods which were published between 2008 and 2022 that met this study’s inclusion criterion.  The search yielded 3254 studies on school readiness, of which 258 adopted experimental or quasi-experimental designs. However, 16 studies (N = 3254) meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated within the scope of this study. The school readiness intervention programs were found to be positive and significant, and using the standard set forth by Cohen (1992), the results yielded a large effect size (g = .932). The results highlighted significant differences in groups in terms of age and duration of the intervention variables. The overall results will shed a light in designing effective school readiness intervention programs.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Preschool, Early childhood, Primary education, School readiness, Children

A Meta-Analytic Review of Big Five-personality Trait and Cyberbullying

Nezir Ekinci

pp. 78 - 91   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.4


With the development of science and technology, the internet and communication technology are constantly expanding and affecting people's lives in many areas. The development of internet and communication technology benefits individuals and society in many ways. The ease of use and access to these technologies causes some problems. The most fundamental of these problems is cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is becoming a major global problem affecting many people. Recent research examines the relationship between cyberbullying and the big five personality traits. Research findings indicate different results between personality traits and cyberbullying. In this context, the current research examines the relationship between the big five personality traits and cyberbullying. For this purpose, 12 studies were examined by meta-analysis method in the current study. As a result of the research, the effect sizes between the big five personality traits and cyberbullying were determined. As a result of the findings, it was seen that the personality traits with the strongest effect size with cyberbullying were agreeableness and conscientiousness personality traits. Neuroticism personality trait was found to be positively related to cyberbullying, while openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness personality traits were found to be negatively related.  The results obtained from the research were analyzed and discussed within the scope of the literature.

Keywords: Cyberbullying, big five personality traits, meta-analysis

Online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic: Turkish student teacher and teacher experiences from biology and preschool education fields

Nazli Ruya Taskin Bedizel & Sinem Güçhan Özgül

pp. 92 - 124   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.5


This research presents a qualitative case study that investigates the biology and preschool student teachers' and teachers' experiences of online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study utilizes the diffusion of innovations theory to understand the adoption and application of online teaching as an innovation. The participants in the study consisted of eight senior biology teachers, four biology teachers, nine senior preschool education student teachers, and three preschool teachers. Data collection was conducted through online surveys administered to the participants at the end of the 2021 school year. Additionally, the researchers, who also served as student teachers' supervisors, took observation notes during the online teaching practice to complement the survey data.   The findings of the study reveal insights into the adoption of online teaching and learning processes as an innovation among teachers and student teachers. Analysis of the participants' responses regarding their readiness and experiences indicates that student teachers exhibit higher levels of perception in adopting and applying online teaching compared to the teachers. Interestingly, the experiences of the participants from different fields did not significantly differ in terms of adopting the innovation. This study emphasizes the need to increase the relative advantages of online teaching, minimize its complexity, and be prepared for similar situations. Incorporating online lesson planning and management courses in teacher education programs and providing in-service training can enhance educators' knowledge and experiences in online teaching, contributing to the adoption of online education as an innovation. Additionally, further research is needed to explore the role of parents in online learning environments. Engaging stakeholders from various fields will provide valuable data for a deeper understanding of online teaching and learning.

Keywords: online teaching, teacher education, Covid-19 pandemic, biology education, preschool education, diffusion of innovations(DIT)

Family Functioning in School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of Research in Türkiye Using the McMaster Family Model

Bekir Çelik

pp. 125 - 137   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.6


The aim of this study is to review the studies conducted on school-aged children in Türkiye between 2000 and 2023 based on the McMaster Family Functioning Model. In this study, a systematic review method was used and the studies that used the McMaster Family Assessment Device as a measurement tool were found through academic search engines. A total of 105 articles and dissertations on school-aged children were identified and analyzed for various characteristics. Since the 2000s, there has been an increase in studies of family functioning. In addition, it was found that more studies were conducted at the middle and high school levels of education, while there were fewer studies at the preschool and elementary school levels. More studies were found on issues that can be described as negative, such as conduct problems and bullying.

Keywords: Family functioning, Student, McMaster model

Perceptions of Primary School Teacher Candidates Regarding the Characteristics and Education of Gifted Students

Aygen Koç Koca

pp. 138 - 157   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.7


In this study, the perceptions of primary school teacher candidates regarding the characteristics and education of gifted students were examined. This qualitative study was conducted with a phenomenological research design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 62 primary school classroom teachers who were selected using the criterion sampling method. Interview data were analyzed via the descriptive analysis method. The findings of the study showed that primary classroom teacher candidates generally defined giftedness according to the dimensions of high-level mental performance/intelligence and creativity. They considered expert evaluations important in the diagnosis of giftedness, and they also highlighted the importance of identifying the interests of gifted students and applying additional activities and differentiated instructional practices in their education. A particularly noteworthy finding of this study was that primary school teacher candidates considered the lack of competency and knowledge among classroom teachers regarding giftedness as one of the major problems that gifted students may experience in the course of their primary education. 

Keywords: Primary school teacher candidates, primary school period, giftedness, characteristics of gifted students, education of gifted students

Exploring Critical Multimodal Literacy in Reconstructing Fairy Tales

Tolga Kargın

pp. 158 - 175   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.8


This study delves into the realm of critical multimodal literacy through the lens of fairy tale reconstruction. Employing an innovative pedagogical approach, the research examines how students engage with and transform traditional narratives using a critical perspective and digital tools. This action research showcases how students collaboratively reconstructed fairy tales by reshaping characters, plotlines, and themes, with a particular emphasis on gender roles and empowerment. The integration of digital platforms facilitated the transformation, allowing for creative exploration of characters, settings, and emotions. Findings reveal that students exhibited nuanced critical insights as they questioned and reshaped traditional gender representations, power dynamics, and narrative structures. This research contributes to educational practices by highlighting the potential of critical multimodal literacy activities in fostering transformative learning experiences. By integrating critical analysis with digital storytelling, this study opens avenues for advancing pedagogical strategies that promote critical engagement, multimodal expression, and societal reflection.

Keywords: Critical Multimodal Literacy, Elementary School, Fairy Tales, Digital Storytelling

Teacher Candidates’ Understanding and Appraoches to Errors About Matrices

Şükrü Ilgün, Solmaz Damla Gedik Altun & Alper Cihan Konyalıoğlu

pp. 176 - 196   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.9


The aim of this study is to examine the ability of pre-service mathematics teachers to detect errors made in solving questions about matrices. The study particularly focused on revealing the internalization of the teachings such as the meanings and relational dimensions of concepts and operations about matrix. The study was conducted with 26 teacher candidates at a university in the Eastern Anatolia Region. They were given a written exam, and their responses were analyzed by two field experts. The results showed that the pre-service teachers did not fully understand the concepts and operations of matrices. They made a variety of errors, including misconceptions and incomplete understanding. They were also not very good at solving proof-based questions. However, they were more successful at solving problems that were based on plain logic or could be solved using rules.

Keywords: Error, Error approximation, Linear Algebra, Matrices

Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors of Pre-School Teacher Candidates in Flipped Learning

Funda Ergüleç & Rahime Filiz Ağmaz

pp. 197 - 222   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.10


The aim of the study is to examine pre-school teacher candidates' self-regulated learning practices in a flipped learning environment and to explore the educational factors in flipped learning influencing pre-school teacher candidates’ self-regulation skills development process. This study examines how pre-school teacher candidates use self-regulation strategies during the implementation of flipped learning. This case study was carried in the fall semester of the 2022-2023 academic year with 55 first-year Early Childhood Education department teacher candidates. A structured interview form was used as a data collection tool and the data of the research is composed of pre-school teacher candidates answers to the interview form consisting of open-ended questions. The data were analyzed by thematic analysis method. The study would shed light on how the results may be used to flipped learning approaches for teaching and learning. 

Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning, Pre-School Teacher Candidates, Flipped Learning

Transformation of Knowledge into Economic Value in Higher Education and Global Competitiveness: A Panel Causality Analysis on OECD Countries

Kadir Sain & Kurtuluş Bozkurt

pp. 223 - 251   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.11


Entrepreneurial and innovative higher education institutions of the 21st century have become the driving forces of social development, economic growth and global competitiveness by improving human capital through the educational and instructional services they offer, producing qualified scientific information through the scientific research they conduct and by fulfilling an important responsibility in the solution of social problems. In the current study, the effect of higher education on global competition in the context of the transformation of knowledge into economic value in OECD countries was analyzed with the Granger Panel Causality Test. In the application part, a panel data set was created with the data collected from 25 OECD countries for which data were available for the period 2006-2017. The Global Competitiveness Index variable was taken as the basis to reveal the global competitiveness of the countries included in the analysis. In order to reveal the status of their higher education, the gross schooling rate in higher education, the employment rate of the population with higher education, public expenditures on higher education, the quality of the education system, the quality of scientific research institutions, the performance of scientific publications, the R&D expenditures made by higher education and the university-industry cooperation variables were taken as the basis. As a result of the application, it was determined that each variable representing higher education has a bilateral causality relationship in the short term with the Global Competitiveness Index representing global competition. 

Keywords: Higher education, global competition, knowledge, economic value, OECD, panel causality test

An Evaluation of Integrated Approach for Developing Laboratory Application Skills of Physics Pre-Service Teachers

Ahmet Zeki Saka, Tolga Saka & Mustafa Yaylı

pp. 252 - 272   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.12


The purpose of this research is to improve and evaluate a different approach to develop the lab application skills of the physics pre-service teachers in the courses of Secondary Physics Experimental Design (SPED), School Experience (SE) and Teaching Practices (TP). In this context, action research was used to achieve the purpose of the research. The research carried out with 20 pre-service physics teachers studying in the 5th grade of a Northern University in Türkiye in the academic year of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Physics pre-service teachers implemented micro-teaching applications for the lab applications in the SPED course, practiced applications in the schools within the SE course in the fall semester and reinforced the lab skills in the TP course in the spring semester. Implemented activities carried out the applications significantly contributed to the development of the lab methods’ application skills of the physics pre-service teachers.

Keywords: Physics pre-service teachers, Lab methods, Physics experiment design in secondary school, School experience, Teaching practice

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Models on Learning Outcomes: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis

Bilge Öztürk

pp. 273 - 296   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.13


Cooperative learning is a learning model in which students support each other's learning in cooperation with each other. In the cooperative learning model, the education process has many advantages in terms of academic, social, psychological, measurement-evaluation, and economic aspects. In this study, which examines the effect of cooperative learning on students' learning outcomes, 23 first-order meta-analysis studies revealed the effects of cooperative learning model-based teaching on students' learning outcomes between 2010-2021, and 23 effect sizes from these studies were combined with the second-order meta-analysis method. In the study, teaching style, performance types, teaching level, research area, publication quality, publication bias status, report types, and location where the research was conducted were considered moderator variables. As a result of the study, it was determined that the effect of cooperative learning models on student outcomes was moderate. It was also revealed that the levels of cooperative learning outcomes for different domains differ. It has been determined that cooperative learning is also an essential factor in student outcomes. In addition, this study determined that the location of the meta-analysis studies was an important factor in the average effect sizes. Suggestions were made in line with the results of the research.

Keywords: Cooperative learning, student outcomes, second-order meta-analysis

Mediating Role of Social Exclusion in the Relationship Between Sense of Belonging and Loneliness in International Students

İsmail Kuşci, Ali Öztosun & Nuran Bayram Arlı

pp. 297 - 315   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.14


This research aims to examine the mediating role of social exclusion in the relationship between a sense of belonging and loneliness in international students. The research sample is composed of international students studying in universities in Türkiye. In the research, in which 284 students voluntarily participated, General Belongingness Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Social Exclusion Scale were applied. The study was designed by establishing Hayes Process Model 4 as the regression model. Sense of belonging was found to be in negative relation with social exclusion and loneliness. Moreover, a positive relationship was observed between social exclusion and loneliness. Finally, it was noticed that social exclusion acts as a mediator of the process towards belonging and loneliness and has a significant impact on loneliness. These findings were discussed within the literature framework mentioned in the conclusion part, and suggestions were made.

Keywords: International students, loneliness, sense of belonging, social exclusion,

Views of Science and Art Center (SAC) Graduates on SAC

İsmail Satmaz

pp. 316 - 335   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.15


In Türkiye, Science and Art Centers (SACs) are the institutions where gifted students receive the most education. The aim of this research is to gather opinions and experiences related to various aspects of SAC, including identification, educational programs, problems, advantages and disadvantages, teachers, family approach, and benefits of being a graduate. In this study, the case study design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The participant group of the study consists of 12 students who graduated from SAC. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher and analyzed by content analysis method. According to the research results, graduate students emphasized that the selection and placement process for SAC should be based on more scientific grounds. In addition, they stated that SAC’s educational programs have positively contributed to their careers. Students expressed that the support of their families is one of the most important factors for them. However, they also expressed that the physical and material facilities of SAC need to be improved. Researchers are recommended to conduct longitudinal studies on SAC graduate students.

Keywords: Gifted students, Science and art center, Science and art center graduates

Investigation of Secondary School Students' Knowledge Levels About Global Warming in Terms of Various Variables 

Oylum Çavdar

pp. 336 - 358   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.16


The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge levels of secondary school students about global warming in terms of various variables. A total of 1008 students studying in secondary schools in Muş Province city center were included in the study. This study was conducted through a survey design and the Scale of Knowledge about Global Warming was used as a data collection tool. In addition to descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results of the study suggested that the knowledge level of secondary school students about global warming was above average. The participant secondary school students' knowledge levels about global warming differed significantly according to the variables of grade, number of siblings, mother and father's education level, whether they have internet access at home, their science course grade, and the frequency of following the developments related to global warming.

Keywords: Global Warming, Environmental Education, Science Education, Secondary School Students

A Qualitative Study on Effective Distance Language Education: Advantages and Challenges From The Learners’ Perspectives

Yunus Emre Sarı & Naci Serhat Başkan

pp. 359 - 380   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.17


The advent of digitalisation and the spread of online platforms have transformed the way educational materials are delivered, creating unprecedented learning opportunities. This innovative modality, capable of initiating a paradigm shift, enables students to obtain their education from virtually any location. The main objective of this research study is to investigate and assess the effectiveness of real-time online instruction in the German language. This appraisal includes the standard of instruction, the degree of interaction in the online milieu, and the deployment of Web 2.0 tools, all viewed from the learner's perspective. This research aims to elucidate the experiences and perceptions of students from diverse academic backgrounds who participated in the German language instruction course at a public university during the post-pandemic period. The syllabus was constructed with reference to content development models in distance education. Data collection for the study was achieved via an open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview forms. The study design is rooted in action research. The collected data were examined with the MAXQDA 2022 qualitative data analysis software. The research pinpointed three primary themes from the compiled data: structure related issues on distance education, effective communication in distance education, and viewpoints on Web 2.0 tools. These themes offer an extensive insight into the present scenario and potential future trajectory of online language education.

Keywords: Distance learning, Web 2.0 tools, potentials, challenges, German language teaching, communication barriers

The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Positive Experiences at School and School Attachment

Gökhan Demirhan & Seval Koçak

pp. 381 - 404   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.18


Due to its social and personal outcomes, the level of attainment of the objectives of fundamental education has always been a topic of global concern. Enhancing children’s level of success in every discipline by assuring school attachment is one of the most essential factors in accomplishing the objectives of basic education. In this study, the influence of positive school experiences and school satisfaction on school attachment was investigated. In this context, the mediating effect of school satisfaction on the relationship between 3rd and 4th-grade primary school students’ perceptions of positive experiences at school and their school attachment was examined. Using the Positive Experiences at School Scale, the School Satisfaction Scale, and The School Attachment Scale for Children and Adolescents, data were collected from 912 students enrolled in elementary school. The results indicated that positive school experiences had an effect on school attachment both directly and indirectly via the partial mediation effect of school satisfaction. Based on the findings, recommendations were formed.

Keywords: attachment to school, attachment to the teacher, attachment to friends, primary education, positive school experience, school satisfaction.

Teachers' Self-Efficacy on the Use of Information Technologies in the Distance Education Process: A Scale Development Study

Özge Öztuzcu & Zeynel Abıdın Mısırlı

pp. 405 - 422   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.19


The Covid-19 outbreak has compelled many countries to shift towards distance learning as a means to continue education while ensuring the safety of students and educators. Consequently, the usage of information technologies in education has increased significantly. This study focuses on developing a tool for measuring the information technology self-efficacy of primary school teachers in Balıkesir who have had to increase their use of technology for distance education during the academic year 2020-2021. The study participants are primary school teachers in Balıkesir. The scale structure, consisting of five factors and twelve items, was identified through analysis. The results indicate that the developed scale is reliable. The scale can help assess the self-efficacy of distance education teachers and support efforts to improve their use of information technologies.

Keywords: Self-Efficacy, ICT, Distance Education, Scale Development

Evaluation of Teaching Profession Law through Pareto and Content Analysis Methods 

Anıl Eranıl & Hikmet Şevgin

pp. 423 - 445   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.20


This study investigates satisfaction with the Teaching Profession Law (TPL), evaluation of the current situation, and expectations in line with the opinions and thoughts of teachers and administrators. The study was designed in a sequential explanatory design, which is a mixed design. Quantitative data were collected from 241 educators through a 12-item survey by the researchers. Then, qualitative data were collected by conducting interviews with 12 participants through a semi-structured form. The Pareto technique was used in the analysis of quantitative data in the research, and content analysis was used in qualitative data. According to the results obtained in line with the quantitative data of the research, it was found that the career ladder application was not appropriate and the law did not increase teacher welfare and motivation to work. It has also been disappointing after the law came into force. In line with the findings that emerged in line with the qualitative data, the law is not comprehensive and inclusive, it is expected to be developed over time and does not sufficiently guarantee personal rights. It eliminates the practice of equal pay for equal work and disturbs the peace at school. The fact that the law came to the fore with its material aspect also damaged the professional reputation. Stakeholder views were not taken into account while drafting the law. It is expected that the job descriptions of educators, career planning, elimination of financial concerns, increasing professional reputation, specialization according to the branch, serving professional development, and securing teacher rights.

Keywords: Turkish education system, teaching profession law, education law

Preservice Preschool Teachers' Opinions About Writing to Learn Mathematics and The Methods They Use While Writing

Ferhat Öztürk

pp. 446 - 464   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.21


This study aims to determine pre-service preschool teachers' opinions about writing to learn mathematics and the methods they use while writing. Survey design, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the study. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 418 pre-service teachers studying in the preschool teaching undergraduate program of six different state universities. The Likert-type questionnaire developed by Ozturk and Gunel (2015) was used to collect data. Frequency analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in data analysis. According to the results obtained from the study, it was determined that pre-service preschool teachers used revising writing and planned writing processes when the methods they used while writing about learning mathematics were taken into consideration. When this situation is evaluated, it can be said that the pre-service teachers carried out a comprehensive writing process. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between pre-service teachers' thoughts about writing to learn mathematics and their gender and grade level. In addition, although there was no significant difference between pre-service teachers' opinions about the methods they used while writing to learn mathematics and their grade levels, a significant difference was found according to the gender variable.

Keywords: Mathematics learning, writing to learn, pre-service preschool teacher

The Mediating Role of Teamwork in the Correlation Between Administrative Support and School Belonging

Yusuf Gidiş & Bilgen Kıral

pp. 465 - 482   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.22


The study aimed to examine the correlation between teamwork in schools, administrative support perception, and sense of school belonging, and the mediating effect of teamwork on the correlation between administrative support and school belonging. The research was designed in the relational screening model, which is one of the quantitative research designs. 319 teachers working in elementary, middle, and high schools in Turgutlu/Manisa in Turkey in the 2018-2019 academic year participated in the study. In the study, the data was collected by using Teamwork, Administrative Support, and School Belonging Scale. In the study, it was determined that there were significant and positive correlations between teamwork, administrative support perception, and sense of school belonging. It was concluded in the study that the effect of teamwork on teachers’ sense of school belonging was partially realized by administrative support.

Keywords: Teamwork, administrative sport, school belonging, administrator

An Investigation of the Textbooks Used in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners with the Dimension of Instructional Design: Yeni Hitit, Yedi Iklim and Yeni Istanbul Examples

Huseyin Gocmenler

pp. 483 - 511   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.23


When the course materials prepared in the field of teaching Turkish to foreigners are carefully examined, there is no holistic consistency regarding the instructional design. Dimensions such as theme and unit starters, to what extent and how grammar is handled, to what extent and with what kind of design skills are included, what kind of strategy is followed in terms of vocabulary teaching, to what extent and with what road map cultural dimensions are included, what kind of perspective is taken on assessment and evaluation, instructional language, theme naming and sequencing are very important in terms of the instructional design of textbooks. In this study, the above-mentioned dimensions were analyzed comparatively in Yedi Iklim, Yeni Hitit and Yeni Istanbul textbooks. The study was based on a case study from qualitative research methods. Each textbook was accepted as a document and data were collected through document analysis. Inspired by McGrath's (2002) study, a review form was developed to examine the pedagogical design of textbooks. In this context, the researcher collected the data through document analysis by creating an evaluation form titled "Examination of Teaching Turkish to Foreigners Textbooks in terms of Pedagogical (instructional) Design" by taking expert opinion and revealed the findings through content analysis.

Keywords: Teaching Turkish to Foreigners, Textbook Review, Instructional Design