International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 17 Issue 2 (June 2022)

Original Articles

Comparison of Preservice Science and Social Studies Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Socioscientific Issues

Kader Birinci Konur & Sinem Tüfekçi

pp. 8 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.1


In this study, the views and attitudes of pre-service science and social studies teachers towards socioscientific issues were examined. Descriptive research design was used in the study. The quantitative data were collected with the "Attitude Scale towards Socioscientific Issues" and the qualitative data of the research were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 5 open-ended questions. 215 science and 220 social studies teacher candidates participated in the research. While qualitative data were analysed descriptively, SPSS program was used in the analysis of quantitative data. As a result of the research, pre-service teachers did not consider their knowledge of sociological issues sufficient and that there were deficiencies in the education system. As a result of the analyses, a significant difference was uncovered in favour of science teacher candidates in the worry sub-dimension related to socioscientific issues and it was determined that the worry level of science teacher candidates was higher than social teacher teachers.

Keywords: Socioscientific subjects, Attitude, Preservice teachers

Psychological Mindedness in ELT: Exploring Contributions of Comparative Literature to Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Psychological Mindedness

Esin Kumlu

pp. 31 - 49   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.2


This qualitative research aimed to explore the significance of the development of psychological mindedness, especially during the COVID-19 Pandemic, for pre-service English Language Teachers and the use of comparative literature to facilitate it. The research was conducted in the context of an undergraduate ELT program in Turkey and data was gathered through narrative inquiry at the end of the semester under the title of a selected literature course. Thematic analysis of the collected 39 narrative frames shed light on the development of pre-service teachers’ psychological mindedness which emerged in three overarching themes; self-awareness, empathy, and the importance of mental and physical well-being of a teacher which are all the necessary conditions for psychological mindedness. Findings suggest that these pre-service teachers were strongly influenced by the comparative analysis of the literary texts that facilitated the development of psychological mindedness.

Keywords: Psychological Mindedness, Comparative Literature, COVID-19, English Language Teacher Education, Pre-service Teacher Education

The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Teaching Musical Play (Round) Skills to Children with Intellectual Disabilities

Sinan Kalkan

pp. 50 - 70   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.3


Play is a very effective tool in the development of the child's personality, cognitive skills, social-emotional structure, communication and interaction skills. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of teaching with the Direct Instruction Model on the teaching of musical play (round) skills in students with moderate intellectual disability. The study was designed with the multiple probe model with probe phase between subjects five girls and four boys with intellectually disabled, aged between 9-11, participated in this study. The research findings show that the Direct Instruction Model, which was used to a limited extent in teaching play skills to children with intellectual disabilities, was effective in teaching butterfly round play skills to students with moderate intellectual disabilities. It is undestood that the participants continued their butterfly round play skills 7, 14, and 21 days after the end of the instruction. It also showed that all of the participants were able to generalize their round play skills to different environments, times and people. In addition, the teachers of the students included in the study also expressed positive opinions about the teaching model used in the research and the changes on their students.

Keywords: Intellectual disabilities, Musical play, Direct instruction model

Re-thinking Multigrade Classrooms as an Alternative Educational Environment

Nergi̇z Kardaş İşler

pp. 71 - 90   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.4


The same content and learning environments offered to students from different cultural backgrounds in schools, as well as the lack of diversity, fail to address different learning needs, isolate learners from the society. For this reason, there has always been a search for alternative education models. Mixed age groups are taught together in multigrade classes, which is a primary school practice in Turkey that arises from necessity. Thus, the positive effects of this practice can be benefited from considering the multigrade class practice as an alternative education environment for teachers. This study aims to present suggestions to the educators to help them carry out their multigrade classroom activities more effectively and to draw attention to the advantages of the multigrade classroom practices. 14 pre-service teachers took part in the study as participants. The data were obtained through semi-structured interviews held in 2020-2021 academic year. The results of this study emerged in two different categories as physical arrangements and practice-based arrangements. The participants presented suggestions both for the inside and outside the classroom, and for the decoration and materials and instructional process, the institutional functioning of the school, and the type of communication in the classroom.

Keywords: Multigrade schooling; Alternative education; Mixed age; Teacher training

Middle School Students' Views on Distance Education: Turkish Language Teaching under the Shadow of COVID-19 Pandemic

Bahadır Gülden & Kadir Kaplan

pp. 91 - 113   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.5


In this study, it was aimed to determine the strengths, deficiencies, and weaknesses of distance education process of learning-teaching activities in Turkish lesson by asking the opinions of students who are the subject of the learning process. In the study, the basic qualitative research design was preferred considering the nature of the research subject. The study group of the research consists of twenty-eight 7th grade students who continue their education activities in Eskişehir in the 2020-2021 academic year. The online interviews were conducted with the teachers through a semi-structured interview form prepared by the researchers. The data were analyzed by content analysis using the MAXQDA program. The students stated that distance education is more functional than face-to-face education in vocabulary activities of listening and comprehension skills. In speaking and writing skills, students mostly preferred distance education. The students explained the strengths and weaknesses of the two educational environments compared to each other in terms of all skills, with their justifications. In the study, students were also asked to write the five most useful features of both educational environments. Thus, the strengths of both learning environments in terms of Turkish lessons were revealed. Based on the data obtained, it has been determined that distance education cannot create an alternative to face-to-face education in terms of social interaction, teacher-student interaction, group studies at the desired level, but distance education is clearly preferred by students as it offers many opportunities that face-to-face education does not offer. For this reason, based on the prominent skills and activities of distance education, it can be said that it will be more beneficial to continue Turkish lessons by adopting a mixed (hybrid) model in the future.

Keywords: Covid-19 Pandemic, Turkish language education, distance education, face-to-face education, basic language skills

Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Instructors Who Teach Turkish as a Foreign Language on Web 2.0 Rapid Content Development for Educational Purposes

Haluk Güngör

pp. 114 - 130   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.6


This study aims to examine the self-efficacy of instructors who teach Turkish as a foreign language for educational Web 2.0 rapid content development in terms of various variables. The study consists of 155 instructors who teach Turkish in various institutions. This study, which was designed according to the scanning model, is descriptive field research. The scale developed by Birişçi, Kul, Aksu, Akaslan, and Çelik (2018) was used to determine the self-efficacy of the trainers for Web 2.0 rapid content development for educational purposes. Analysis results indicated no significant differences between the variables of gender, technology use in language teaching before COVID-19, the continuation of distance Turkish teaching after COVID-19, and self-efficacy. A significant difference was detected between the education level of the study group, their experience in the field, distance education experience before Covid-19, and their self-efficacy for Web 2.0 rapid content development. The Covid-19 process raised important awareness in terms of teaching Turkish to foreigners remotely. In the information age, it is very important to increase the awareness and experience of teachers who teach Turkish to foreigners remotely about teaching a foreign language with digital tools.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Teaching Turkish to foreigners, Distance education, Web 2.0 tools

Examining the Programs of Political Parties in terms of the Structure of the Turkish National Education System

Ahmet Çoban

pp. 131 - 164   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.7


Education systems are largely shaped by the policies of political parties. Political parties try to express their policies regarding the structure and functioning of the education system through party programs. As in all countries, policies regarding the education system have an important place in party programs in Turkey. The aim of this study is to examine the programs of political parties in Turkey in terms of the structure of the Turkish National Education System; the aim is to present their views on “Pre-School Education”, “Primary Education”, “General Secondary Education”, “Vocational Technical Secondary Education”, “Higher Education” and “Non-Formal Education-Adult Education-Continuous Education”. In this context, it is important to express the similarities in the objectives of the political parties regarding the structure of the Turkish Education System. In this study, the qualitative research method was used. The data of the research were collected through document analysis. The study population consisted of all the political parties in The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT). The sample of the study consists of five political parties selected according to the criterion sampling method, which is one of the purposive sampling methods. These political parties can be listed as follows according to the number of members: 1.Justice and Development Party (JDP), 2.Republican People's Party (RPP) 3.Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) 4.National Movement Party (NMP) 5.Good Party (GP). The data sources of the study are the party programs of political parties. The documents regarding the party programs were taken from the official websites of the parties. In the context of suitability for the purpose of the study, the documents were analyzed by the content analysis method. The findings of the research are given without adding the researcher's comment, according to the themes and codes created. According to the findings, there are quite a lot of statements about the structure of the Turkish National Education System in the programs of political parties. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that there are many similarities in the programs of the five parties, although there are many differences in the objectives of the parties regarding the structure of the Turkish Education System.

Keywords: Political Parties, Party Programs, Education, The Turkish National Education System

An Analysis of the Relationship between Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs towards Learning, their Educational Beliefs, and Critical Thinking Dispositions

Yasemin Abalı Öztürk

pp. 165 - 207   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.8


This study attempts to identify the pre-service secondary mathematics teachers’ epistemological beliefs towards learning, their educational beliefs, and critical thinking dispositions as well as the relationship between them.  A relational survey model was employed and the study group consisted of 152 pre-service teachers.  The study used Epistemological Beliefs Scale towards Learning (EBStL), The Educational Philosophy Tendencies Scale (EPTS), and Marmara Critical Thinking Dispositions Scale (MCTDS) as data collection tools. The results suggested that pre-service secondary mathematics teachers’ epistemological beliefs and critical thinking dispositions were above the average value. Moreover, they were found to have progressive and reconstructivist tendencies. The results also revealed that the pre-service secondary mathematics teachers’ epistemological beliefs towards learning did not differ across their gender, academic achievement, parents’ educational level while significantly differed in terms of their grade level. The pre-service secondary mathematics’ teachers’ educational beliefs significantly varied across their gender, grade level while that was not the case for their academic achievement and parents’ educational level.  Besides, the results confirmed positive and significant relationships between the pre-service teachers’ epistemological beliefs towards learning and their critical thinking disposition levels and progressivism, further positive and significant relationships were noted between the critical thinking dispositions and progressivism, reconstructionism and perennialism. Progressivism was found to be explained by epistemological beliefs towards learning and critical thinking dispositions; reconstructionism was found to be explained by critical thinking disposition; epistemological beliefs towards learning was determined to be explained by progressivism and critical thinking disposition, and critical thinking dispositions were identified to be explained by reconstructionism and perennialism

Keywords: Epistemological Belief, Educational Beliefs, Critical Thinking Dispositions, Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers

Examination of Digital Literacy Levels of Science Teachers in the Distance Education Process

Feride Gökdaş & Aylin Çam

pp. 208 - 224   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.9


Digital literacy skills could make important contributions to teachers’ learning and teaching process and professional skills. The purpose of this article is to examine the level of science teachers’ digital literacy skills in terms of gender and the duration of professional experience. The sample of the study consisted of 88 science teachers working in various districts of Turkey. Digital literacy scale and distance education evaluation interview form were used as data collection tools. The results showed that, no statistically significant difference was found in the digital literacy levels of female and male science teachers. However, digital literacy of teachers with less professional experience is more positive than teachers with more professional experience. Also, science teachers mostly prefer lecturing during distance education. The results show that distance education should be strengthened in terms of infrastructure, implementation, quality in Turkey. Within the scope of the research, it was suggested to organize various trainings to improve the digital literacy levels of teachers, to enrich the content of EBA used in the distance education, and to increase the in-service trainings to improve the distance education skills of teachers.

Keywords: Coronavirus pandemic, digital literacy, distance education, science teachers

The Role of Social Support and Lifestyle in Pre-Service Teachers’ Psychological Well-Being

Fahri Sezer

pp. 225 - 245   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.10


The main purpose of this study was to explore the predictive utility of demographic, social and lifestyle variables in psychological well-being. The participants were 410 pre-service teachers in Turkey. Three research instruments were utilized in the current study: Psychological Well-Being Scale, Lifestyle Inventory and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Both social support and lifestyle variables accounted for the additional variance in psychological well-being above and beyond the effects of demographic variables. Purpose in life was best predicted by being-married; lifestyle variables made the most contribution to autonomy; and social support-friend were found to be the best predictor of positive relations with others. It seems that demographic, social support and lifestyle variables play a differential role in psychological well-being.

Keywords: Psychological well-being, social support, lifestyle

An Investigation of the Relationship between the Parents’ Math Literacy Self-Efficacy and Their Math Anxieties

Sümeyra Akkaya & Kübra Polat

pp. 246 - 265   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.11


Mathematics anxiety can be defined as negative feelings towards mathematics and mathematical operations in general. Math anxiety is seen in many students, and even in parents. In fact, parents' own anxiety regarding mathematics may lead to their children experiencing angst over the subject as well. This can be a problem considering parents are considered one of the basic components of education and have important responsibilities to guide the education process of their children. Mathematical literacy is one of the research topics that have come into prominence in recent years due to PISA. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the parents' mathematical literacy self-efficacy and mathematics anxieties. Additionally, through examining the participation of parents in mathematic teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is hoped to better understand their views and methodologies. All participants in this study are parents themselves. The study is designed with an explanatory sequential design among mixed method research designs. The grade in which the students are educated does not make any difference in the self-efficacy and anxiety perceptions of the parents regarding their mathematics literacy. Also, the parents' mathematical literacy self-efficacy and anxiety levels were high.

Keywords: Mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy of mathematical literacy, parents’ participation, teaching, Covid-19

Perception of Safe School in Turkey: Opinions of Parents, Students and Teachers

Hilal Kahraman, Fatma Köybaşı & Celal Teyyar Uğurlu

pp. 266 - 290   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.12


This study examined the phenomenon of school from the point of view of teachers, students and parents, and the question as to who wants what and who can do what and it was tried to make decisions about school safety and to determine strategies with opinions of stakeholders. The design of the study, which was designed according to the qualitative research model and which aims to examine the phenomenon of school safety in depth by benefiting from the views, experiences and perceptions of the school stakeholders, is phenomenology. The stakeholders of primary and secondary schools in Sivas city centre during the 2018-2019 school year were included in the study group.  The participants of the study consist of 50 teachers, 48 students and 50 parents. As a result of the interviews conducted through semi-structured interview form, it is seen that teachers, students and parents address the phenomenon of safe school under the categories of "Psycho-social", "Administrative", "Physical", "External Factors" and "Employee Characteristics" and express their expectations from National education, school management, teachers, parents and students in physical, educational, administrative, disciplinary, legislative aspects and the aspects of courtesy, financial support, responsibilities, personnel and media.

Keywords: Safe school, Safety, School, Expectations related to Safety, School stakeholders