International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 14 Issue 1 (March 2019)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186



Original Articles

Psychological Counseling and Guidance Services in Early Childhood Education

Cem Gençoğlu, Selen Demirtaş-Zorbaz, Haktan Demircioğlu & Samet Ekin

pp. 6 - 23   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.1


The purpose of this study is to identify views of counselors working at early childhood education institutions about psychological counseling and guidance services. To this end, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 73 guidance teachers using semi-structured interview forms in order to explore their views about counseling and guidance services offered in early childhood education. Qualitative phenomenological research design was used in the study.  The sample consisted of 73 guidance teachers working at preschools or nursery classes in primary schools. The data were analyzed using content analysis. According to the analysis results, the guidance teachers mostly considered psychological counseling and guidance services to be necessary especially for parental education, preventiveness, and developmental guidance. They also held the view that there should be a separate assignment for the reconstruction of psychological counseling and guidance services in early childhood education and focus should be directed on especially family-related work. The results were discussed in relation to the existing literature.

Keywords: Early childhood education, counseling and guidance, school counselor

Predicting Vocational Satisfaction of Pre-Service ELT Teachers by Vocational Values

Tugay Tutkun

pp. 24 - 39   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.2


Identification and recognition of the values that an individual possesses can help predict his future behaviors. In this context, it is important to examine the concept of values since it leads individual's preferences. It is also possible to see one’s value orientation in profession choice. Individuals are expected to work in professions where their values can be met. It can be assumed that values are also related to vocational satisfaction. Individuals caring about their independency would be more satisfied if their occupation allows them to work independently. According to the Theory of Work Adjustment, which examines the place of vocational values in occupational choice and occupational satisfaction, the harmony between the individuals’ values and the characteristics of the environment they work with ensures high vocational satisfaction. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the departmental satisfaction, vocational values and predicted reinforcer pattern for each type of value of pre-service English language teachers studying in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education, and Department of English Language in the context of Work Adjustment theory. In this descriptive study, Turkish version of the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (TMIQ) and Predicted Reinforcer Pattern (PRP) scale were used as data collection tools. Results of the study are presented using descriptive statistics, mean comparison tables and graphics. Although females were more satisfied than males, pre-service ELT teachers were found to being satisfied for choosing ELT major in general. Results suggest that the majority of ELT students believe that becoming a teacher will probably satisfy their needs associated to associated to achievement, altruism and safety. However, majority of ELT students believe that becoming a teacher will probably not satisfy their need for; autonomy, status and comfort.

Keywords: Vocational values, departmental satisfaction, preservice ELT teacher

Pre-service Teachers' Views about Digital Teaching Materials

Özden Demirkan

pp. 40 - 60   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.3


This study aims to reveal pre-service teachers’ views about digital teaching materials which they have in their Technologies in Teaching and Materials Design course. In this qualitative study, phenomenological design was used. The participants of the study consist of 55 pre-service teachers studying and taking the above-mentioned course at Gazi Faculty of Education.Data were collected through “Written Form for Pre-service Teachers’ Views about Digital Teaching Materials” developed by the researcher. Content analysis method was used to analyze the qualitative data collected. Findings of the study showed that pre-service teachers found the preparation of digital teaching materials useful, interesting and gripping, suitable for the age of technology, effective for their field of study. They also stated that the use of this kind of digital teaching materials needed to be more common. The study also revealed that pre-service teachers found Web 2.0 tools which they learnt to use such as presentation (Emaze and Powtoon), discussion (Padlet and Voice Threat) and interactive evaluation (Kahoot and Plickers) technically different, unusual, attractive, user-friendly, enhancing creativity and visually rich. The most frequently emphasized strengths of using these tools in the classroom were being interesting, attention grabbing, enhancing motivation and permanence, enabling active participation and effective discussion atmosphere, providing instant feedback. The limitations of using these digital teaching materials in the classroom were stated as such: the need for internet, many characters and features not being free of charge, it may lead to distraction if not used effectively, students might make insulting comments on each other, some students might feel unhappy when their faults are revealed, competition may lead to ambition. Challenges of using these tools in the classroom were stated as such: the need for fast internet connection, some tools have parts that are not free of charge and it hinders complete use of the tool, some tools are difficult to use. Considering the views regarding how digital teaching materials would support teaching process, it was found out that pre-service teachers thought such materials would draw and raise attention, make the lesson enjoyable; diverse, original and effective content would be created; more practice would be possible, learning would become permanent and easier; students’ active participation would be enabled; students’ motivation would be increased; effective communication would be possible; technology would be involved in the process; students’ success would increase. 

Keywords: Digital teaching materials, pre-service teachers, Web 2.0, Technologies in Teaching and Materials Design course

Reconsidering the Assessment Policy: Practical Use of Liberal Multiple-choice Tests (SAC Method)

Kürşat Cesur

pp. 61 - 74   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.4


Examinees’ performances are assessed using a wide variety of different techniques. Multiple-choice (MC) tests are among the most frequently used ones. Nearly, all standardized achievement tests make use of MC test items and there is a variety of ways to score these tests. The study compares number right and liberal scoring (SAC) methods. Mixed methods sequential explanatory research design was used which consists of both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data. A test with ten questions was conducted to 73 prospective English teachers who were selected purposively and they were asked why they had chosen more than one option in the second part of the test. Priority was on the quantitative data obtained from the test results. Qualitative data were collected using participants’ explanations for their answers. The analysis of the qualitative findings was used to explain the findings of the quantitative results. The results reveal that liberal scoring method rewards partial knowledge and penalizes blind guessing. It is superior to the conventional scoring methods as it eliminates their disadvantages. Though it eliminates the disadvantages of other scoring methods, liberal scoring method is difficult to be used practically in the classroom. Without a technological help, teachers may find liberal scoring method really difficult. The study also provides teachers with a Microsoft Excel document for practical use of liberal MC tests. With the help of this document, teachers can easily conduct liberal MC tests in their exams. Suggestions to the test designers and policymakers at both national and international levels about the use of liberal scoring method were provided at the end of the study. 

Keywords: Scoring Methods for Multiple-choice Tests, Liberal Multiple-choice tests, Partial Knowledge, Blind Guessing

School Choice of Middle-Class Parents and Students in the Context of Neoliberal Policies

Zehra Keser Ozmantar & Dilek Karataşoğlu

pp. 75 - 97   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.5


The purpose of the present study was to examine the reasons of school choices of middle-class families and their children within the context of the neoliberal education policies in Turkish education system. The study adopts a qualitative descriptive research approach. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews. The first study group consisted of 22 parents (13 public and 9 private schools). The second study group consisted of 30 students (16 public and 14 private school students) who were middle class, had high enough exit-exam score to be able to choose science high schools in Gaziantep province in the academic year of 2016-2017. The data were analyzed using the descriptive and content analysis techniques. The findings indicated that academic, economic, environmental, personal, social and cultural, religious, politic factors and physical conditions affected middle class parents and students school choices. The multi-factorial features demonstrate that middle-school parents and students are rather cautious and thorough in school selection. An important inference from the findings is that middle-class tends to see education as a re-generational tool serving to hold on to their social status and existence.

Keywords: school choice, neoliberal policies, parents, middle-class

Student Misbehaviors Confronted by Academics and Their Coping Experiences

Cahit Erdem & Mehmet Koçyiğit

pp. 98 - 115   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.6


This study aims to put forth student misbehaviors confronted by academics and their experiences of coping with these behaviors with respect to types of student misbehaviors, setting, student characteristics, academics’ responses, students’ reaction to intervention, academics’ feelings, attributions to possible causes of misbehaviors, and precautions to prevent repetition of misbehaviors. In this phenomenological study, the data were gathered from 19 academics working at different departments of various universities in Turkey through a semi-structured interview form in which they were asked to narrate a memory about a student misbehavior. Descriptive analysis was employed in analysis process and the codes were constantly compared. Interrater reliability of the coding was found as .80. Some of the main findings of the study include; student misbehaviors are grouped into categories of interfering with teaching of a lesson, not being interested in the lesson, inappropriate behaviors towards the academic, inappropriate behaviors towards peers, and disobeying the rules. The ratio of misbehaviors conducted by ‘problematic’ students is close to students who are perceived as ‘unproblematic’ or ‘agreeable’ students by the academics. The academics’ responses to student misbehaviors include verbal warming, ignoring, imposing sanctions, resorting to violence, making changes about the class and leaving the setting. The students continued misbehavior, quitted misbehavior, resorted to violence or left the setting. Academics’ attributions to misbehaviors are out-of-class causes (family-related, society-related and school administration related) and in-class causes (students-related, academic-related and curriculum/ school system related). With this study, it is aimed to contribute to research in the literature on academics’ classroom management.

Keywords: Classroom management, academics, student misbehavior

Preservice Classroom Teachers' Opinions on Use of Educational Games in Instructions of Primary School Courses

Murtaza Aykaç & Davut Köğce

pp. 116 - 143   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.7


This study aimed to examine preservice classroom teachers’ opinions on how educational games improve their teaching skills. In accordance with this purpose, the qualitative research design was employed. The study group was composed of 60 preservice teachers attending the Department of Primary Education in the Faculty of Education at a state university in the spring term of the 2017/2018 academic year and who took the physical education and game teaching course. A semi-structured, open-ended question form prepared in accordance with the purpose of the research and letters were used as the data collection instruments. Answers of the preservice teachers to the open-ended questions were scanned as images and transferred into digital medium. Next, the obtained data were subjected to a content analysis with the MAXQDA 12 qualitative data analysis software and the data products were analyzed with the “data coding” technique. The data obtained from the preservice teachers with letters were analyzed by both researchers descriptively. The findings achieved in the analysis were utilized to reinforce the findings on themes and codes achieved in the analysis of the data obtained with the semi-structured interview forms. It was concluded that educational games improved the preservice classroom teachers’ competencies of planning and implementing the use of games in the instruction of primary school course attainments. It was also concluded in the study that the participants had been very little aware of educational games’ definition and their contributions to student learning before the application and their awareness increased after the application.

Keywords: Educational games, game teaching, preservice classroom teachers

An Analysis of the In-Class Oral Feedback Provided by the Teachers of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Fatma Bolukbas Kaya & Mehmet Yalçın Yılmaz

pp. 144 - 155   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.186.8


Feedback can be defined as the act of providing information to the student regarding their behavior throughout the learning process as well as how much progress has been achieved as a result of such behavior. In other words, it is the communicative process that explains how successful or unsuccessful a student is at a given topic, by providing them with the opportunity of self-assessment and correction. The aim of this study is to specify the in-class oral feedback elements provided by the teachers of Turkish as a Foreign Language, along with the analysis of these feedback types and offering suggestions to those who work in the field. Employing the specific case study method among the existing qualitative research methods, this study involves the 4-week observation of the classes given by the instructors of Turkish as a Foreign Language at Istanbul University Language Center at A1, A2, B1, B2 and C1 levels. The oral feedback provided by the instructors throughout the observation sessions has been noted down and compiled. These feedback items were then analyzed in accordance with Schimmel's feedback classification (1988). Accordingly, these feedback items were classified in four groups as confirmation feedback, correct response feedback, explanatory feedback and bug-related feedback. The results of the study has shown that the instructors preferred mostly the confirmation feedback and the correct response feedback, usually used the confirmation feedback and correct response feedback in combination. On the other hand, the frequency of explanatory feedback decreased as the students' language competence level increased, and the least preferred feedback type was found to be the bug-related feedback.

Keywords: Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language, feedback types, oral feedback.