International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 13 Issue 4 (December 2018)

Original Articles

Meta-Analysis Study on Organizational Outcomes of Ethical Leadership

Hüseyin Akar

pp. 6 - 25   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.1


The aim of this study is to synthesize the results of the studies examining the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational justice, organizational commitment, organizational trust, organizational cynicism, motivation, job satisfaction and mobbing in educational organizations. In this respect, this study is a meta-analysis study. The studies derived from literature review and conducted by using some keywords identified by the researcher were included in the meta-analysis using the selection criteria determined by the researcher. The total number of studies is 33. It has been revealed that there is no publication bias. The analyzes were performed according to the random effects model (REM). The findings are as follows; the effect size of ethical leadership on organizational trust [r =.82] is "very strong"; effect size of ethical leadership on job satisfaction [r =.63], organizational justice [r =.76] and organizational cynicism [r= -.56] is "strong"; effect size of ethical leadership on organizational commitment [r=.44] and motivation [r =.47] is "moderate"; effect size of ethical leadership on mobbing [r= -.28] is "modest". According to the results, while the ethical leadership behaviors in educational organizations increase, organizational justice, organizational trust, organizational commitment and job satisfaction of education employees increase; whereas organizational cynicism behaviors and mobbing perceptions decrease. In this context, it can be stated that there should be an understanding of leadership that dominantly applies ethical principles in educational organizations.

Keywords: meta-analysis, ethical leadership, organizational outcomes.

An Investigation of Secondary School Students' Critical Visual Reading Skills Depending on Different Variables

Bünyamin Sarikaya

pp. 26 - 36   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.2


The aim of this study is to examine the critical visual reading skills of secondary school students (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade) in terms of different variables (gender and grade level). Study sample consisted of 400 students of 4 schools located in the city center of Muş. A screening model was used in the research. Data were collected using the 5-point Likert-type Critical Visual Reading Scale 34-item developed by Söylemez (2015). The reliability of the scale was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.814). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 22.0 at a significance level of 0.05. Number, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used for descriptive statistics of variables. T-test was used for analysis of quantitative continuous data in two independent groups while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of quantitative continuous data in more than two independent groups. A Scheffe's test was used to to make posthoc comparisons between the groups to determine significant differences. Results show that secondary school students’ critical visual reading skills differ significantly by grade level but do not differ by gender. Several suggestions were made based on the findings.

Keywords: Criticism, Visual, Visual Reading

Applicability of Web Based Distance Education to Instrument (Guitar) Education

Okan Yungul & Ajda Aylin Can

pp. 37 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.3


In this research, it is aimed to present the applicability of Web Based Distance Education (WBDE) method in instrument (guitar) education for Fine Arts High Schools. In accordance with this purpose, a web-based experimental study is developed within the scope of synchronous and asynchronous models for guitar education. The research is carried out in two different study groups in the 2017-2018 academic year at Aydın Doğan Fine Arts High School in Turkey. In order to evaluate web-based instrument education, the first study group is formed with 8 students in the 11th and 12th grade who have taken guitar education, and the second study group is formed with two students who have never studied guitar in order to evaluate the initial guitar education. 

In the research using mixed method, pretest-posttest matched control group random experimental pattern method is applied within the scope of quantitative method, interview and observation techniques are applied within the scope of qualitative method. Guitar performance grading scale (GPGS), initial guitar education basic behavior evaluation form, individual instrument course attitude scale, guitar course achievement test (GCAT), structured course observation form and interview form are used as data collection tools for the research.

In the research, the pre-test and posttests used for collecting quantitative data are analyzed and interpreted by the Mann-Whitney U which is test the nonparametric counterpart of the significance test of the difference between the two independent groups means in the statistical analysis method and by the Wilcoxon test, which is the nonparametric counterpart of the significance test of the difference between the two dependent groups means. The opinions of the students about the experimental study are analyzed within the scope of descriptive analysis method and the themes and codes which are determined as a result of the analysis are interpreted.The data obtained by the observation technique are analyzed and interpreted by using a structured course observation form.

According to the results obtained from the research, it is concluded that the instrument (guitar) education program of Fine Arts High School could be applied by WBDE method and this method could be used as an alternative to traditional instrument education.

Keywords: Web based distance education, distance education, guitar education, instrument education, music education, Fine Arts High School

The Role of the Professional Characteristics of Teachers in the Context of the General Qualifications of the Teaching Profession

Atiye Adak Özdemir & Burcu Özdemir Beceren

pp. 70 - 90   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.4


The purpose of this study is to find out the role of teacher traits within the context of general qualifications of the teaching profession. The participants of this study, which was designed as a qualitative case study, consist of parents, teachers and administrators selected by the sampling technique. In the study, observation, interview, and document analysis techniques were used to collect data. The data obtained from the study were analyzed by employing the descriptive analysis technique. The findings of the study conclude that parents, teachers, and administrators generally emphasize the qualifications about attitudes and values regarding teaching profession while defining a qualified pre-school teacher. Activity observation conducted at a school, classroom environment observation and data obtained from photographs exhibited at the end of school year reveal that teachers' general qualifications regarding teaching profession do not overlap with the ones in professional knowledge and professional skills.

Keywords: preschool, qualification, preschool teacher, professional skills

Effects of Parenting Style on Students' Achievement Goal Orientation: A Study on High School Students

İlker Kösterelioğlu

pp. 91 - 107   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.5


This study intends to determine the effects of parenting styles, as perceived by parents, on high school students’ achievement goal orientations. The study was conducted on 497 students and their parents selected via simple cluster sampling from public high schools of the Ministry of Education in Amasya, a city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a personal information form prepared by the researcher, the Parents Attitude Scale (PAS) and the 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation Scale. Data analysis includes multiple regression analysis, as well as descriptive statistics. Based on research findings, parenting styles perceived by parents can be listed as democratic, overprotective, permissive and authoritarian. Students’ achievement goal orientation follows the order of learning-approach, learning-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance. Another finding obtained in the study shows a positive and medium level relationship between parenting style and learning approach orientation and a positive and low level relationship between parenting style and learning avoidance orientation. Democratic and overprotective parenting styles were found to have the strongest and most significant impact on learning approach orientation whereas overprotective and permissive parenting styles had the most significant impact on learning avoidance orientation. Parenting style was found to have a low level positive relationship with performance approach and performance avoidance orientation. Analyses show that authoritarian and overprotective parenting styles had the most significant impact on both orientations.

Keywords: Parenting style, Achievement, Achievement goal orientation, High school students

Self Regulated Learning Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity Study

Eda Öz & Halime Şenay Şen

pp. 108 - 123   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.6


The research was carried out to develop a measurement tool for measuring self-regulated learning skills of secondary school students. For this purpose, the validity and reliability study of the “Self-Regulation Learning Questionnaire” was conducted on 688 students who studied in different classes in the middle school (fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth grade) and selected by random sampling method. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis conducted to ensure the construct validity of the scale, a five-factor structure consisting of 39 items was obtained. These factors are “1. Studying Method, 2. Self Evaluation, 3. Receiving Support, 4. Time Management and Planning, 5. Seeking Information”. The Cronbacheris Alpha value of the scale was .94. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which was conducted to test whether the five-factor structure of the scale was consistent with the previously defined factor structure, supports the structure obtained. These results show that the Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire  is an appropriate tool for the measurement of self regulated learning skills of secondary school students.

Keywords: Self Regulated Learning, Self Regulated Learning Questionnaire, Secondary School Students, Likert Scale, Statistical Analysis

The Impact of the Perception of Organizational Virtue on the Perception of Organizational Happiness in Educational Organizations

Fatmanur Özen

pp. 124 - 140   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.7


The aim of this study is to examine the impact of organizational virtue perceived by of the employees of educational organizations on the perceived organizational happiness at schools which is their work places. Data collection was conducted through the ”Organizational Virute" (OVS) and "School Organizational Happiness" (SOHS) scales from a group of teachers (N = 242) working at elementary schools. The OVS, used to collect data at the study, has three sub-dimensions as "Optimism, Trust and grace, Integrity and forgiveness" while the SOHS has five sub-dimensions as  "Management processes, Professional attitude,    Workplace communication, Devotion and Economic conditions". Results of the correlation tests showed that there is positive associations that are mostly at medium and high levels between all sub dimensions of the OV scale and all sub-dimensions of the SOH scale. Results of the multiple regression analysis demonstrated that some of the sub-dimensions of the SOH scale estimate certain sub-dimensions of the OVS except for the "economic conditions" sub-dimension: The "Optimism" sub-dimension of the OVS   estimates the "Trust and Grace" sub-dimension, "Professional attitude" estimates "Communication" whereas the "Honesty and forgiveness" sub-dimension  estimates the "Management processes, Professional attitude and Devotion" sub-dimensions. The constant values calculated by the multiple regression analysis for all sub-dimensions are significant indicates that other factors than organizational virtue, that are not covered by this study, also have certain impacts on school organizational happiness.

Keywords: Organizational Virtue, Organizational Happiness, Educational Organizations

Investigation of Communication Levels of the Coaches in Some Branches of Individual and Team Sports through the Perceptions of the Athletes in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Muzaffer Doggun

pp. 141 - 152   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.8


The purpose of this study is measuring the communication skills of the coaches coaching in individual and team sports through perceptions of athletes and the effect of success through perception of the athletes. The focus of the research is the communication between the two main groups of the study, the athletes who are competing in individual and team sports and their coaches. The study includes determination of the effects of demographic specifications of these groups in the communication between them, training times of athletes and his/her coach on the skills of communication of the coach over the athlete and the communication skills of the coach on the athletes’ success by the perception of athlete. At the end of the study,  the communication skills of  coaches will be more effective in the individual sports, a lower education level of the athletes provides better communication development between them and their coaches, and women coaches developing better communication has been observed. 

Keywords: Coach Communication skills, Coach Athlete communication, Communication skills, Sport

Project Funds As a Management Model and Alignment of EU Funded Special Education Projects with National Policies in Turkey

Mehmet Fatih Köse & Mehmet Ata Öztürk

pp. 153 - 163   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.9


This study seeks to assess the extent to which EU-funded projects administered by schools and other institutions are aligned with the strategic priorities adopted by Turkey’s Ministry of National Education (MoNE). With this objective in mind, the thematic distributions of projects in the field of special needs education were examined and the policy priorities stated in documents composed by MoNE were comparatively evaluated. The study followed a qualitative research model by conducting document analysis to inspect a total of 158 Erasmus+ projects funded by the EU between 2012 and 2017. The projects were analyzed according to their numerical and financial distributions by year, geographical region, institution type, and disabled groups within the target population. Furthermore, content analysis was applied to examine projects’ thematic distributions. The study concluded that project funds are disproportionately distributed to institution types, target groups, and geographical regions and that projects’ strategic alignment with Ministry policies needs to be strengthened, especially in terms of how project funds are used. Finally, it is recommended that the distribution and use of international funds be structured in line with the policy priorities adopted by the Turkish National Education System and that cooperation between policy makers and executers not only in the allocation of funds but also in their administrative, financial, and legal management processes be strengthened.

Keywords: Project management, EU funded projects, Erasmus+ projects, Special needs education

The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary of Learners of Turkish as Foreign or Second Language

Muhammet Raşit Memiş

pp. 164 - 185   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.178.10


The aim of this study is to find out which vocabulary learning strategies learners of Turkish in Turkey and abroad use, to compare and contrast vocabulary learning strategies used by these two group of learners, to determine whether learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies are influenced by a set of variables including age, gender, language level, and another foreign language learnt, and to identify the relationship, if any, between vocabulary and the use of vocabulary learning strategies. This study used a relational screening model that allows drawing comparisons and correlations. The data were collected in 2017-2018 using the Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning Strategies Scale developed by Kocaman and Kızılkaya-Cumaoğlu (2014) and vocabulary tests designed by the researcher considering different language levels. The sample consisted of 182 learners of Turkish in Turkey and abroad. In the analysis of the data, parametric and nonparametric tests were used together on the basis of the normality distribution of the data. The data were analyzed using the t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Tukey’s test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation analysis. The analysis results showed that the mean frequency of strategy use was medium, the type and frequency of strategies used by the learners varied according to language levels, gender and the place of learning Turkish (in Turkey or abroad) had a limited and statistically insignificant effect on the use of strategies, previous learning of another foreign or second language has an effect on the use of vocabulary learning strategy, the place of learning led to a significant variation in vocabulary achievement, and there was a strong, positive and significant correlation between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary.

Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary, teaching Turkish as foreign or second language.