International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 18 Issue 2 (June 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548



Original Articles

Education of Incarcerated Young People in Malawi: Strategic Plan versus Reality

Samson C.r. Kajawo & Lineo R. Johnson

pp. 7 - 26   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.1


Education must be accessible to all citizens, including those incarcerated in penitentiaries, to contribute to the socio-economic development of the countries. In Malawi, to enhance incarcerated people’s access to quality education in correctional facilities, the Malawi Prisons Service (MPS) included education as a strategic objective in its five-year strategic plan covering the period between 2016 and 2021. This article analysed and compared this strategic education objective against reality to ascertain its implementation and relevance during the implementation period. Guided by Bunning's model of strategic planning, the study employed a qualitative content analysis research method using the 'hybrid approach'. The study mainly used data from the semi-structured interviews involving purposively selected 25 educators and officials from five young offenders' rehabilitation centres in Malawi. Findings revealed a mismatch between the contents of the strategic education objective and the actual reality. The study identified characteristics of Bunning’s ritual approach since it was revealed that the strategic plan was developed to please the government and development partners. From the education objective viewpoint, the strategic plan was hardly used during the five years since the educational activities remained the same (even worse) after the implementation period. The young offenders' facilities were still stuck in the punitive philosophy, as evidenced by limited resources in the education section and the management's priority on coerced farming instead of education. It was recommended that the correctional administrations needed to prioritise the provision of quality education for school-aged offenders in correctional policies.

Keywords: Correctional Education, Rehabilitation, Correctional Policy, Strategic Plan, Juveniles

Predictive Effect of Meaning of Life on Psychological Well-Being and Happiness Among University Students

Sezai̇ Demi̇r, İsa Yücel İşgör & Yasin Yılmaz

pp. 27 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.2


In this study, it is aimed to examine the predictive effect of the meaning in life on psychological well-being and happiness in university students. In the study, it was also investigated whether there was a significant difference between the meaning in life, psychological well-being and happiness scores in terms of gender. The study population of the research consists of students studying at Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Education in the fall semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The study group consisted of a total of 323 students, 236 (73.1%) girls and 87 (26.9%) boys, aged between 20 and 26 (x̄=21.62), selected with the convenience sampling method, one of the non-random sampling methods. In the study personal information form, Short form of Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, the meaning in life predicted students' psychological well-being at a significant level; it was seen that the meaning in life explained about 30% of the total variance in students' psychological well-being scores. In addition, the meaning in life predicted the happiness level of students at a significant level; it was seen that the meaning in life explained about 23% of the total variance in the happiness scores of the students in a meaningful way. Finally, it was found that there was no significant difference between the meaning in life, happiness and psychological well-being scores of the students according to their gender.

Keywords: Meaning in Life, Psychological Well-Being, Happiness, Undergraduate, Regression

Examining the Persuasive Speech Proficiency of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students

Şeyma Özdil & Erol Duran

pp. 49 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.3


The aim of this research was to identify the persuasive speech skills of fourth-grade primary school students. The study employed a quantitative method and survey design, and the study group consisted of 126 students in the fourth grade of primary school selected using a convenient sampling technique. Data for the first and second sub-problems of the study were collected over a period of five weeks using student video recordings, plan sheets, and a persuasive speech rubric. These recordings and sheets were assessed by two raters. The collected data were presented in the form of themes and descriptive tables. The results of the study indicated that the persuasive speech skills of the students were largely at medium and low levels. In addition, the results showed that female students demonstrated relatively higher levels of success in terms of persuasive speech skills compared to male students. A literature review was also conducted for the third sub-problem of the research, and examples of achievements in relation to persuasive speech skills for fourth-grade students were presented. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that students generally require the development of their speaking skills, with a particular focus on persuasive speech.

Keywords: Speaking, Persuasive Speech, Level of Determination

Seeking a Solution for Summer Reading Loss

Hakan Dedeoğlu & Ömer Erbasan

pp. 70 - 85   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.4


The study was carried out to determine whether Turkish primary school 1st graders experienced reading loss during the summer holidays and whether giving book support to disadvantaged students during the summer holidays was effective in preventing this loss. The research was conducted with 26 students at a rural primary school. The pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used, and while the experimental group including 12 students carried out reading activities during the summer holiday as part of the ‘Telafide Ben De Varım’ (I Am in for the Remedial) program, the control group consisting of 14 students did not participate in any summer reading. In the study, the “Error Analysis Inventory” prepared by Akyol (2020) based on Harris and Sipay (1990), Ekwall and Shanker (1988) and May (1986) was used as the data collection tool. With the Error Analysis Inventory consisting of Comprehension Scale, Setting Scale, and Articulation Scale, three types of reading levels are measured: anxiety level, instructional level and independent level. The results of the pre-test administered before the start of the summer vacation using this inventory revealed that the students in both groups generally showed poor reading performance and their average reading level was at the “anxiety” level. The post-test administered after the opening of the schools showed that the level of the control group did not change, while the experimental group increased to the “instructional” level. As a result of book reading activities, the reading level scores of the experimental group increased significantly compared to before the intervention, while there was a significant decrease in the control group. Based on these findings, the importance of providing book support to students living in disadvantaged areas to prevent summer reading loss and increasing book reading during the summer is strongly recommended.

Keywords: Reading, Summer Reading Loss, Reading Retardation, Primary School

What Role Do Visions About Future and Vocational Outcome Expectations Have on Proactive Career Behaviors? Examining a Mediation Model on University Students

Ozan Korkmaz & Faruk Caner Yam

pp. 86 - 106   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.5


Adapting to the rapidly changing business and working world today is a behavior that every individual needs, no matter what stage of their career. One of the important variables that make it easier for individuals to adapt to these changes is proactive career behaviors. Addressing the roles of the variables that strengthen proactive career behaviors within a certain approach (i.e., Social Cognitive Career Theory) will produce results that will contribute to adapting to the change that the individual needs. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the mediating role of vocational outcome expectations in the relationship between the visions about future (hope, optimism, pessimism) and proactive career behaviors. 442 university students participated in the research. The ages of the participants vary between 18-27. The structural equation modeling method was used in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that visions about future and vocational outcome expectations were positively associated with proactive career behaviors. The results also indicated that vocational outcome expectations have been shown to have a partial mediating role in the relationship between the visions about future and proactive career behaviors.

Keywords: Visions About Future, Hope, Optimism, Pessimism, Proactive Career Behaviors, Vocational Outcome Expectations, Social Cognitive Career Theory

Development Study of The Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories (IOCT) (From Qualitative Cluster Analysis to Quantitative Confirmatory Factor Analysis)

Ersin Türe & Fatma Bıkmaz

pp. 107 - 132   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.6


In this research, teachers’ orientations in curriculum theories were identified via an assessment tool which was grounded by Marsh and Willis (2003) where curriculum theorists were classified. “The Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories” was developed to identify the teachers’ orientations in curriculum theories in this research. The item pool for the inventory was obtained through a qualitative clustering analysis applied on the studies in the related literature. Later, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied separately on each scale of the inventory. As the result of this process, “the Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories” was developed which consisted of “the Scale of Orientations in Prescriptive Curriculum Theories”, “the Scale of Orientations in Descriptive Curriculum Theories” and “the Scale of Orientations in Critical-Exploratory Curriculum Theories”. In this context, a new culture-specific measurement tool has been developed that aims to determine the interaction between scientists, specialists and teachers in the field, in other words, theorists and practitioners. The IOCT inventory consists of three scales: OSPCT, OSDCT and OSCECT. OSPCT consists of 27 items, OSDCT consists of 18 items and OSCECT consists of 19 items. The highest score that can be obtained from OSPCT is 135 and the lowest 27; The highest score that can be obtained from OSDCT is 90 and the lowest is 18; the highest score that can be obtained from OSCECT is 95 and the lowest is 19. Thus, it can be determined to what extent a teacher has a prescriptive, descriptive or critical-explanatory curriculum theory orientation.

Keywords: Curriculum Theories, Teachers’ Orientations in Curriculum Theories, The Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories

A Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes towards Virtual Classroom Environment Scale

Filiz Çetin & Özden Demirkan

pp. 133 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.7


This studyaims to develop a measurement tool to be used to determine the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards virtual classroom environments. For this purpose, the literature on the subject was examined, and student opinions were taken. As a result of these processes, a 50-item piloting form of the scale was prepared. The prepared scale items were presented to the expert opinion in terms of content validity, and after the feedback obtained from the experts, some items were rearranged with minor corrections and transformed into a 50-item scale. The scale was administered to 282 students, 234 female and 48 male, studying in different teaching programs and different grade levels at Gazi University Gazi Faculty of Education in the spring term of the 2021-2022 academic year. Validity and reliability analyses of the scale were made based on the data set obtained as a result of the application. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed for construct validity, and as a result of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), a scale consisting of 46 items and 2 sub-dimensions was obtained. The total variance explanation rate of the two factors in the structure of the scale was 62.79%. The reliability analysis results obtained for the scale revealed that the Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the overall scale was .98, and the reliability coefficients for the sub-factors were .98 and .96, respectively.

Keywords: Virtual Classroom, Attitude, Pre-Service Teachers

Academicians and Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Approaches to Creativity

Zeynep Taşyürek

pp. 148 - 172   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.8


The aim of this study is to reveal the perceptions of creativity of academicians working in different departments of an faculty of education and teacher candidates studying in different departments through an exploration of metaphors. A phenomenological design, as one of the qualitative research designs, was used in this study. The study group consisted of academicians working in the faculty of education of a state university and teacher candidates studying at the same university. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher and analyzed by content analysis. As a result, it was observed that the metaphors developed by the teacher candidates and the academicians varied. It was concluded that teacher candidates mostly identified the concept of creativity with nature and based their metaphors on concepts that generated positive emotions and thoughts.  On the other hand, academicians produced metaphors according to their fields of study.

Keywords: Creativity, Perception, Academician, Teacher Candidate

Opinions of Turkish Language Teachers on The Reflection of Multiple Intelligence Theory in Turkish Coursebooks

Funda Örge Yaşar & Mert Başbayrak

pp. 173 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.9


The aim of this study is to reveal the opinions of Turkish language teachers about the reflection of Multiple Intelligence Theory in Turkish coursebooks. The participants of the research are 30 Turkish language teachers who teach in secondary schools in Cizre district of Şırnak province in the 2020-2021 academic year. The data of the research were collected with semi-structured interview forms. Based on the data obtained in the research, separate categories were created for each question in the semi-structured interview form, and similar answers were grouped and included in the created categories. Highlights of the teacher’s views were quoted directly. According to the results of the research, 83.33% of Turkish language teachers think that linguistic intelligence is the most frequently referred sort of intelligence in coursebooks, while 36.67% of teachers perceive logical-mathematical intelligence as the least frequently referred sort of intelligence in coursebooks. However, 56.67% of Turkish language teachers said that the texts and activities in the coursebook are not suitable for different intelligence domains. It has been determined that the rate of teachers who think that the level of including intelligence domains in the books differ according to the classes is 46.67%. The main problems faced by the teachers while creating activities for different intelligence domains were physical, cultural and equipment inadequacy of the schools in Cizre district of Şırnak province with 37.5%.

Keywords: Multiple Intelligence Theory, Turkish Coursebook, Turkish Language Teachers, Semi-Structured Interview