International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 14 Issue 4 (December 2019)

Original Articles

A Meta-Analysis Study on Job Satisfaction of Class and Branch Teachers

Emine Dağlı

pp. 7 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.1


The purpose of this study is to identify the effect size of classroom and branch teachers' opinions related to the teachers' job satisfaction levels. Additionally, the effect size of the studies examining the job satisfaction levels of the teachers was examined according to the moderator variables. Studies, between the years 2000-2018, that include standard deviation, average, sample number data, which examines the job satisfaction levels of teachers according to the branch variable are in the scope of this research. Research is a meta-analysis method used, and master's thesis and doctoral dissertations scanned for Google Scholar database and Council of Higher Education National Thesis Center and peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals related to the job satisfaction levels of teachers in Turkey were identified. According to the selection criteria, 19 studies were included in the study. The sample of the study consists of 9300 teachers, 4210 males and 5090 females.  In the study, random effects model was used to analyze the data. The result of the research shows that the branch has a significant but low effect on job satisfaction in favor of classroom teachers. When the studies included in the scope of the meta-analysis are classified according to the publication type and their effect sizes are examined, there is a significant difference in favor of the article type. Additionally, it was determined that there was no significant difference according to the place where it was done, when it was done, and the job satisfaction scale type used.

Keywords: Classroom Teachers, Branch Teachers, Meta Analysis, Job Satisfaction, Elementary Education

A Study on Kahoot and Socrative in Line with Preservice Teachers’ Views

Gülçin Saraçoğlu & Handan Kocabatmaz

pp. 31 - 46   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.2


The aim of this study is to determine preservice teachers’ views of using Kahoot and Socrative. Qualitative research method was applied in the collection, analysis and discussion of the data of the study which is a descriptive one. The study was carried out with the participation of 36 preservice teachers studying in 6 different departments namely special education, elementary mathematics teaching, science teaching, music teaching, art teaching and Turkish Language teaching. Interview form was used as the data collection tool. Findings of the study reveal that following the application process preservice teachers’ views were mostly positive. Preservice teachers stated that their attention and motivation increased, applications enhanced permanence, made classes more fun and encouraged active participation. They also mentioned that they thought of using these applications in their classes in the future. On the other hand, some preservice teachers stated that competitive aspect of Kahoot affected them negatively during the practice of the application. Some other preservice teachers pointed out that they found the introduction part of the application more complicated and boring. The most important drawback stated is that internet facilities are not equally convenient for both applications.

Keywords: kahoot, socrative, preservice teacher, educational technology, formative assessment

An Analysis of Children's Books in Translation of Christian Nöstlinger in Construction of the Constructor Learning Theory

Esma Dumanlı Kadızade & Yusuf Aslan

pp. 47 - 61   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.3


Constructivist approach is based on constructing, explaining, interpreting and transferring any given knowledge in mind and generating new information from the current one, rather than memorising it.  Since the constructivist approach that was put into effect in Turkey in 2005-2006 academic year, the individuals are expected to rethink, interpret and reach to the knowledge with their own deductions by organizing it in their own minds, rather than accepting what is presented to them. The constructivist approach, which aims students to actively use their research, questioning and thinking abilities, advocates free thinking and the subjectivity of knowledge, as opposed to the behavioural approach. In this study, the works of Christine Nöstlinger, a writer of German Children and Youth Literature, were examined on the basis of the aims of the constructivist approach.   The result of the study concludes that in Nöstlinger's books there are types of individuals who learn constructively, and that the characters in those books overlap with the types of individuals projected by constructivist learning theory.

Keywords: Christine Nöstlinger, Constructivism, Children's Literature, Constructivism, Structuralism, Constructivist Learning

An Evaluation of the Use of Fingernail in Classical Guitar Training According to the Expert Opinions

Ümit Kubilay Can & Umut Volkan Yılmaz

pp. 62 - 89   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.4


The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fingernail in classical guitar playing considering expert opinions. Interview questionnaire forms have been generated under three categories; the length, structure, shape and use of fingernail, fingernail care and products; and fingernail problems and solutions. This study is a quantitative study based on the descriptive approach. The sample of the study is formed from 27 experts in the field of guitar education. The data of the study has been collected by using survey technique with 17 open-ended questions created by the researchers. Tables of opinions, frequencies and percentages have been generated through the evaluations of the expert opinions. As a result of the study, it has been understood that there are shared and different point of views upon the use of fingernail in classical guitar playing. In addition, the experts have been asked about the suggestions upon how physical differences affect fingernail length and shape, how the correct fingernail shape and length should be and how proper fingernail for playing classical guitar can be maintained.

Keywords: Classical guitar education, the use of fingernail in classical guitar playing, classical guitar, instrument training, music education, expert opinions

Code Switching Beliefs of Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language: A Scale Development Study

Ahmet Akkaya & Gülnur Aydın

pp. 90 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.5


The aim of this study is to develop a scale related to code switching beliefs of learners of Turkish as a foreign language (TFL). The 38-item Code Switching Beliefs of the Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language Scalewas piloted with 301 students who were learning C1-level Turkish at Harran University TÖMER (Turkish Language Center) and İstanbul Aydın University TÖMER. Based on the data obtained, an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and the finalized 17-item scale comprised the subdimensions of code switchingin the learning-teaching process, code switching by frequency, code switching by reasons and code switchingin the family and social environment. The total variance explained by this scale was calculated as 49.393% and the internal consistency value was .77. Thus, a functional scale is thought to have been developed to serve the purpose of the study.

Keywords: Code switching beliefs, Turkish language, scale development.

Effects of Stem Based Activities on In-Service Teachers’ Views

Serkan Timur, Betül Timur & Nagihan İmer Çetin

pp. 102 - 113   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.6


In this study we investigated the effect of STEM based activities on in-service teachers’ views about STEM teaching. Pre-test and post-test research design was employed to investigate teachers’ reactions to STEM based activities. The participants were 39 in-service teachers from different branches who were working as teachers in public schools in Turkey. The teachers attended a 40 hour STEM training course in which STEM based activities performed. Pre-service Teachers’ Integrative STEM Teaching Intention Questionnaire was used to measure teachers' views on STEM teaching. The results showed that STEM based activies had positive effect on teachers’ views about STEM education.

Keywords: STEM, STEM teaching, STEM based activities, teachers

Evaluation of Teacher Trainees’ Career Expectations in Terms of Various Variables

Muhammet Baki Minaz & Mehmet Ali Akın

pp. 114 - 136   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.7


This study seeks to evaluate teacher trainees’ career expectations in terms of some variables. A mixed model was used in the study. The population of the study is comprised of students of the Siirt University Faculty of Education, while the sample for the quantitative research and qualitative research is comprised of 283 students and 30 volunteers, respectively. The career planning questionnaire (Minaz, 2019) and the semi-structured interview questions developed by the researcher were used to collect data. As a result of the study, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between the career plans according to variables such as the students’ department and grade point average (GPA), that the career planning levels of the students at the Social Sciences Department were lower than the students studying in the other departments, and that the students with GPA between 71 and 80 had a higher career planning score. There was no statistically significant difference between the career plans according to variables such as the students’ gender, age, parental living status, place of birth, and marital status. According to the content analysis results of qualitative findings, it was determined that the students did not do enough research when choosing this department while those who did failed to search in detail and that the students were placed into universities only based on their scores. More than half of the students stated that they are in the department in which they can use their skills. Finally, teacher trainees stated that they are aware of the difficult and easy aspects of their profession while the students expressed that they fail to keep up with the innovations in the field because of the ever-increasing information

Keywords: Keywords: Teaching, Career, Teacher Trainees, Career Expectations

Implementation of Activities Based on the NTC System of Learning and Their Impact on the Students' Success in Turkey

Nergis Ramo Akgün & Derya Girgin

pp. 137 - 150   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.8


The primary role of NTC (Nikola Tesla Center) is to use new discoveries in the field of neurology in classrooms and in everyday life. This learning program consists of various activities and games for children.  This experimental research was carried out in one government primary school in Canakkale, Turkey. 27 students from the third grade (17 males and 10 females) were included, and in the pre and post-testing, they responded to 16 questions related to the knowledge they gained during the implementation of the experimental factor, as a part of the NTC learning system, related with knowledge of flags from 20 countries. The results showed that many of the students did not have enough knowledge about flags, capital cities and landmarks from other countries in the pre-testing. After the application of eight activities on the topic of flags selected from the NTS program, we noticed more success in the responses of students in the post-test. Prior to the realization of the experiment, one basic and two auxiliary hypotheses were put forward. After the implementation of the research, it was concluded that the activities based on the NTS system of learning have an impact on the students' success.

Keywords: NTS system of learning, success testing, effective learning, logical thinking

Motives of Pre-service Classroom Teachers for Sports Activity Participation

Süleyman Can & Sabahattin Deniz

pp. 151 - 166   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.9


The current study aims to evaluate the pre-service classroom teachers’ motivations to participate in sports activities. The study group of the current research employing the survey model is comprised of the students attending the Department of Classroom Teacher Education in the Education Faculty of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University. A total of 295 students; 212 females and 83 males, participated in the study on a volunteer basis. The research employed the “Sports Participation Motivation Questionnaire” developed by Oyar, Aşcı, Çelebi and Mülazimoğlu (2001) to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, SPSS program package was used. In order to determine the between-groups difference, “t test” and “variance analysis” were employed.    In light of the findings of the current study, it can be argued that the female students’ motivation to participate in sports activities (in the sub-dimensions of team spirit, making friends, desire to compete, skill development and be active) is higher than that of the male students. Depending on the grade levels, it was found that the first year students’ motivation to participate in sports activities is more oriented to being with friends when compared to the second year students. The students stated that they spend an hour doing sports a week; thus, they feel relaxed and gain new skills. The students stating that they are not interested in any branch of sports in the university also stated that they are willing to participate in sports activities. Though there are no licensed athletes in their families, some of the students want to be active in sports activities due to their desire to compete and make friends. As a result, it can be maintained that the classroom teachers view sports participation as a need and their motivation in this respect is high.

Keywords: Motivation, sports education, lifelong sports, sports motivation

Personal Differences and Social Networking: A Comparison of Two Countries

Oğuzhan Atabek

pp. 167 - 189   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.10


This study examines the relationship between personal differences and use of Facebook by pre-service teachers and compares the results from Turkey and the U.S. In addition to the “big five” personality traits, attitude, motivation, and specific motives are also examined among personal differences. The sample consisted of 762 pre-service teachers who use Facebook. Regression analyses conducted on the data collected from the two countries revealed, firstly, that personal differences are associated with Facebook use. Secondly, however, the associations differed remarkably between the two countries. Even individuals with the same personal characteristics used Facebook differently between the countries. On the other hand, in both countries a strong privacy concern and a perceived ‘unrealness’ emerged as negative factors. Individuals who consider social networking services as a place to pass time are avid users in both countries, as well. Furthermore, agreeableness and friendship related to Facebook use were not factors in either country.

Keywords: Social networking service; Facebook; Personality; NEO-FFI; Motive; Motivation.

Professional Ethics in Performance and Educational Technology

Zafer Güney

pp. 190 - 200   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.11


The purpose of the study is to discuss approaches for developing professional ethics in educational technology (ET) based on definitions of educational technology and performances in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT). We will do in several stages, first, we will review historical definitions of educational-instructional technology and discussions for ET field. Then, we will discuss each of definition of ET as previous concepts, focusing attention for rules to primary concepts and contents presented in each definition. We will also present historical approaches of the definitions which provided professional ethics perspective and ethics in society since 1960s.

The process should indicate or address possible performance design approaches in ID steps for developing learning and teaching in learning environments as well as developing professional ethics in educational technology. This also indicates approaches in philosophy of educational technology and its theory, definition and applications of new technologies as well as professional ethics perspectives and AECT code of ethics.

In the paper, we discuss the professional ethics strategies and steps from past to present that a project design teams should follow the strategies and rules for designing learning environments in education, industry, business and army based on philosophy of educational technology and professional ethics in performance with ID models by using newest technologies in society. The process compares both understanding global ethics strategies and considerations for research and product design by ID Models. The steps include understanding words in educational technology practice concept, psychological and instructional trends in instructional design (ID) as well as educational technology movement and using professional ethics rules for conducting multimedia projects in last decays.

At the end of the study, conceptions of educational technology will be discussing as a last definition of educational technology. In addition to professional ethical standards in performance in the field, we will present the relationships between educational technology and application problems for creating instructional materials in society. All steps and standards in professional ethics based on AECT’s code and philosophical approaches in the field will be given at the end of paper.

Keywords: Practice in educational technology (ET), instructional design (ID) models, instructional design and technology (IDT), professional ethics.

Social Presence Techniques and Strategies in a Blended Course: Student Satisfaction and Suggestions

Serkan İzmirli & Özden Şahin İzmirli

pp. 201 - 217   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.12


The purpose of this study was to determine student satisfaction and suggestions for social presence techniques and strategies in a blended course. Phenomenological research design was used in the study. Participants of this study were 22 senior undergraduate students at a public university in Turkey. A blended course was offered to students, including both face-to-face and online elements. An online course, including techniques for establishing social presence, was designed and developed in the Moodle learning management system (LMS). Adobe Connect was used for online live lessons. Techniques and strategies used in the study included course orientation videos, audio-visual meetings, providing frequent and detailed feedback, limiting class size, using sense of humor, using emoticons, addressing students by name, sharing personal stories and experiences, expressing agreement or disagreement, asking questions and inviting responses, and giving greetings. Students attended the course, which lasted a term. After the course, a form with open-ended questions was administered to the 22 students. A focus group interview was then performed with seven student volunteers. In the analysis of this qualitative data, descriptive and content analysis techniques were used. According to the findings, students were highly satisfied with the course. Students had positive opinions for each online course design technique and participant strategy. They thought that “providing frequent and detailed feedback” and “asking questions and inviting responses” were the strategies that contributed most to establish social presence. Although knowing other students and the instructor from face-to-face class brought some disadvantages, it contributed to social presence in general and facilitated it in online class. Students offered new techniques and strategies to establish social presence. These were “presentation in online live class”, “using teaching methods and techniques that enable group work”, “conducting individual live meetings with students (guidance)”, “rewarding”, and “using 3D virtual environments in online live class”.

Keywords: Social presence, social presence techniques and strategies, satisfaction, blended course

The Development of Environmental Motivation Scale at Secondary Schools and Analysis of Different Variables of Students' Motivation Towards Environment

Özge Çiçek-Şentürk & Mahmut Selvi

pp. 218 - 236   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.13


This study aims at developing Secondary School Environment Motivation Scale (SSEMS) in order to analyse the motivations of the students for the environment in terms of gender, grade, socio-economic level. The data were collected from 677 secondary school students to develop the scale and 1775 secondary school students for the survey study. SSEMS was developed as16 items, on three-point likert scale and two dimensions (intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). The results of the research show that the general environmental motivation and intrinsic motivation of female students is significantly higher than the male students. There was no significant difference in the environmental motivation levels of female and male students in terms of extrinsic motivation dimension. When the relationships between the students' grade and their environmental motivations are examined, it is revealed that as their grades increase, all motivation levels (general, intrinsic and extrinsic) of students towards environment decrease. Moreover, there is not substantial correlation between the students' socio-economic levels and general environmental motivations. However, as the socio-economic levels of the students increased, their intrinsic motivation increased significantly, and their extrinsic motivations decreased significantly. The gradual change of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as to gender, class and socio-economic level is discussed at length in the article.

Keywords: Environment, motivation, the secondary schools, development scale

The Relationship Between Media Literacy Levels and Problem Solving Skills Of Secondary School Teachers - The Case Of Nigde Province

Mustafa Çelebi & Kübra D. Çopur

pp. 237 - 255   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.14


Media; It is one of the important factors that reach and shape the behavior of individuals, especially visual and written sources. When faced with media, individuals should be able to investigate, analyze, question the accuracy of messages sent from these tools and also structure the information by themselves. Because access to any information is not enough to understand that it is sourced and necessary. It is known that media messages are not as they appear and have different meanings behind them. Media literacy therefore provides a framework for the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and reproduce from written media to video, from video to the Internet and to media on various platforms. There is a need for qualified media literate teachers who guide students in order to gain the skills of the concept of media literacy. It is also important that teachers who are qualified media literate have problem solving skills that reach the real information by searching the information in various sources and asking the right questions. One of the most important tasks of qualified media literate teachers with problem solving skills is to educate the individuals who shape the society and to provide them with 21st century skills by following the developing knowledge and technology. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' media literacy levels and problem solving skills and to examine this relationship in terms of various variables. The study is a quantitative research in correlational design. The population of the study consists of 1903 secondary school teachers working in schools located at the center of Niğde which has been totally 51 secondary schools in its center in the 2018-2019 academic year. The sample group of the study consisted of 210 secondary school teachers working at 8 different secondary schools and are determined by simple random sampling method. The data obtained from the study were collected by using the Media Literacy Skills Scale (MLSS) developed by Erişti and Erdem (2017) and the “Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982).

Keywords: Media literacy, problem solving skills, elective media literacy course

Why Do Physical Education Teachers Give High Grades?

Sinan Uğraş & Ahmet Enes Sağın

pp. 256 - 269   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2019.220.15


In this study, it is aimed to reveal the reasons of high grades in physical education and sports classes of physical education teachers and to determine the factors that cause this situation. Phenomological study was used in qualitative research methods. The study group of the study was qualitative participants of 10 physical education teachers working in the central districts of Malatya in the 2017-2018 academic year and whose average grade is 100 in the E-school system. In the research, semi-structured interview form prepared by the researchers was used as data collection tool. Descriptive and content analysis was used for the analysis of raw data.  After qualitative interviews with physical education teachers, it was concluded that in the themes that emerge after the qualitative interviews, teachers dominated the idea that they should not be graded in physical education class. When it is added that the measurement and evaluation literacy is not sufficient in addition to the reasons such as giving high marks in private schools, it leads them to give high marks.

Keywords: Measurement and assessment, Giving high grades, Physical education class.