International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 17 Issue 4 (December 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478



Original Articles

An Analysis of Research on The Efficiency of Higher Education in Türkiye

Münevver Çeti̇n & Muammer Maral

pp. 8 - 44   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.1


The aim of this study is to present the general trend and direction of the research, both in terms of content and methodology, from a critical point of view by examining the studies on the efficiency of higher education in Türkiye and thus, to shed light on new research to be done and to make suggestions to researchers. Bibliographic analysis and descriptive content analysis methods were chosen in the research. Data was obtained from Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, Google Scholar, Sobiad, National Thesis Center of the Council of Higher Education, TR Index databases. 70 studies meeting the determined criteria are included in this study. As a result of the research, it has been concluded that there is an increase in the number of research on the efficiency of higher education institutions, and the research focused on universities, data envelopment analysis is used more as an analysis method, the number of methods used is low, the most output-oriented BCC model is preferred among the efficiency measurement models, current data are not used in research, the number of units examined is low, and state universities are examined more. In addition to that, it has been concluded that the number of personnel, financial inputs, number of students, physical resources, the unit numbers represent almost the entire input set, and the outputs used in research are basically represented by four different outputs, which are students, research, project and publication, financial variables, and academic success, and the purpose of this study is directed to different problems, but the scope of the research can be improved.

Keywords: Education, Efficiency, Efficiency Analysis, Higher Education, Research

Miswriting in the Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language: The Tunisian Case

Musa Kaya

pp. 45 - 63   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.2


This research was undertaken with the aim of evaluating, classifying, and detecting mistakes made by Tunisian students learning Turkish as a foreign language at the A1 level. The study is descriptive and was performed using document and content analysis methods. Forty Tunisian university students participating in the study were asked to write about their emotions, ideas, and plans after being given a topic in the classroom at a specific time. Afterwards, their incidences of miswriting were determined while analyzing the texts. Their mistakes were classified under the headings of spelling mistakes, morphemic mistakes, phonetic mistakes, syntactic mistakes, and semantic mistakes. The writing errors grouped within these categories were subsequently re-evaluated according to their specific features and presented again under more narrow subheadings. It was determined that the students made 206 spelling mistakes, equaling 39.84% of the total, followed by 119 morphemic mistakes equaling 23.01%, 95 phonetic mistakes equaling 18.37%, 52 syntactic mistakes equaling 10.05%, and 45 semantic mistakes equaling 8.70%, for a total of 517 writing errors. The majority of these incidences of miswriting happened due to factors such as negative transfer, the distinctive structure of the Turkish language, and the students’ lack of knowledge and experience. It is emphasized that writing-oriented error analysis studies in the teaching of Turkish as a foreign language should be increased and continued at all levels.

Keywords: Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language, Miswriting, Misspelling

Cultural Diversity Through the Lenses of Teachers: A SWOT Analysis

Yahya Han Erbaş

pp. 64 - 86   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.3


Türkiye hosts a diversity of numerous cultural groups regarding its location and social structure. The inclusion of these culturally diverse groups in the education system makes it necessary to evaluate teachers' perspectives and experiences on differences. The purpose of the study is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of cultural diversity as well as the opportunities and threats that cultural diversity poses to teachers. The research is designed as a qualitative phenomenological study to reveal the perceptions of the participants about the cultural diversity that exists in schools. In this study, teachers were reached by using the snowball sampling method of the purposive sampling approach. 118 teachers who are still teaching in Türkiye’s various regions during the 2021-2022 academic year voluntarily filled out the online form. The data obtained were transferred to the MAXQDA package program and similar expressions were gathered under four main themes: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The main themes were created to consist of the steps of the SWOT analysis. Then, content analysis was applied to the data categorized according to the SWOT analysis steps. According to the findings, the strengths of cultural diversity in the classroom mostly gathered around “knowledge construction” and “supporting creativity”. The findings also indicated that teachers' views on the weaknesses of cultural diversity mostly gathered around “difficulty addressing all differences” and “lack of communication”, and teachers’ views on the threats against cultural diversity mostly gathered around “cultural conflict” and “cultural insensitivity”. Finally, teachers also believe that “learning cultural components” and gaining new experiences” are the most important opportunities for cultural diversity.

Keywords: Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, SWOT Analysis, Qualitative Research

Covid-19-Prompted Emergency Distance English Language Education from EFL Students’ Perspective: A Scoping Review on Challenges and Responses

Tuçe Karataş & Hülya Tuncer

pp. 87 - 111   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.4


The profound and permanent impact of the Covid-19 pandemic caused a global closure of universities and schools by transforming physical classrooms into online/distance settings. Such a sudden shift resulted in uncertainty in the educational context. During the pandemic, the only way to sustain education was to benefit from distance education, which is defined as Emergency Distance Education. Specifically focusing on English language education in these emergency circumstances, such a distance education might be defined as Emergency Distance English Language Education (EDELE). In such a rush, both challenges and opportunities have been experienced in EDELE. Therefore, recent studies focus on how to respond to those challenges to improve the conditions of EDELE. Thus, this scoping review study aims to first identify (a) challenges experienced during EDELE, and then (b) responses for those challenges during EDELE from the perspectives of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. Via NVivo 11 Plus, the scoped studies focusing on EFL students were inductively and thematically analysed. The results revealed the challenges during EDELE centred around five main actions: changed, caused, revealed, increased, and decreased. Additionally, thematic analyses of the responses were organized around the implementations or recommendations by three stakeholders: teachers, students, and institutions. The current study contributes to EFL settings in improving distance education circumstances.

Keywords: Emergency Distance English Language Education (EDELE), Scoping Review, Covid-19, NVivo

Effects of Perceptions of The Immediate Surroundings on Obesity and Physical Activity Levels in University Students

Ali̇ Coşkun & Gülşah Şahi̇n

pp. 112 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.5


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perception of the close environment on obesity and physical activity levels in university students. Included in this study were 113 students between 18–25 years of age, taking into account that there may be erroneous and missing data according to the 95% confidence level in the pre-sample size calculation table according to the confidence level and acceptable error for the research, 10% more than the recommended sample size was calculated and 113 students participated. Up to 20% of the participants were fitted with a pedometer and heart rate monitor for 1 day to determine their objective physical activity levels. Height measurement, body weight measurement, bioimpedance analysis, International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), pedometer, heart rate, and Immediate Walkability Perception Questionnaire (IWPQ) were applied to the participants. As a result, a significant relationship was found between the number of steps and the shops, facilities, and other nearby places in the vicinity (P < 0.05; r = –0.353). At the same time, a significant relationship was observed between the stores, facilities, and other nearby places in the vicinity and the level of physical activity (P < 0.13; r = –234). Relationships were found between the body mass index (BMI), Body fat percentage, and abdominal circumference data, which are considered as obesity indicators, and the sub-dimensions of the perception of walkability in the immediate environment, but none of these were statistically significant.

Keywords: Walkability, Physical Activity, Obesity, Neighborhood

Does Fear of Happiness Exist? Exploring Fear of Happiness Through the Five Factors Dimensions of Personality

İsa Yücel İşgör

pp. 126 - 141   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.6


In this research, the relationship between fear of happiness among university students and their types of personality was investigated through analyzing various factors, such as relationships, gender, perceived parental attitudes and locations of upbringing. The subjects of study in this research consisted of the students at Balıkesir Necatibey Faculty of Education in Balıkesir city center in the spring term of the 2020-2021 academic year. The sample of the research included 252 students, selected with the random sampling method from the population, 160 of whom were female (63.5%) and 62 male (36.5%). For the data collection tools, the Big Five 50 Personality Questionnaire, Fear of Happiness Scale, and Personal Information Form were used. The independent samples t-test, correlation, multiple regression analysis and one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were applied in the analysis of the applied data. According to the findings gathered from the research, a negative low level of relationship exists between the students' fear of happiness levels and extraversion and neuroticism, which are specific personality traits. No significant relationship was found between fear of happiness and other traits. It was observed that personality traits predicted the students’ fear of happiness levels significantly, explaining 8% of the change in the scores of the fear of happiness. While there was a significant result in favor of females in the dimensions of conscientiousness and agreeableness, a significant result was determined in favor of males in the dimension of neuroticism. Finally, it was noticed that there was no significant difference between the students' fear of happiness and their personality traits in terms of the perceived parental attitude.

Keywords: Fear of Happiness, Personality, Five Factor Personality

Problem-Solving and Students’ Use of Metacognitive Skills

Ayten Pinar Bal & Ahmet Doğanay

pp. 142 - 163   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.7


We examined how high school students use their cognitive and metacognitive skills in the geometry problem-solving process. This research employed a mixed-methods descriptive sequential design. Data were collected in the 2019–2020 academic year at secondary education institutions in the central districts of Adana, Türkiye. Using stratified sampling, 313 students participated in the quantitative component, of 313 students 149 are girls and 164 were boys and they were all 15 years olds. Then, using extreme case sampling, 18 students were selected as participant of the qualitative component. Fourteen of them were boys and four were girls. Measures included the metacognitive skills scale, geometry problem test, thinking-aloud protocol, and an observation form. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were applied for data analysis. Results showed that students with high metacognitive skills used metacognitive skills more when solving geometry problems than students with low metacognitive skills. As the implication of the result it is suggested that attention should be paid to the development of students' metacognitive skills in schools. In this context, it would be beneficial to train teachers to develop metacognitive skills. In addition, there is a need to investigate the effect of metacognitive skills on learning in different learning areas.

Keywords: Metacognitive Skills; Problem-Solving; Geometry Problem; Secondary Education

Factors Affecting General and Online Academic Achievement of University Students: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Scores

Barış Çeti̇n

pp. 164 - 181   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.8


This study aims to determine whether university students' levels of online self-regulated learning, online technologies self-efficacy, and motivated strategies for learning predict their general academic achievement and online academic achievement. In this study, the scanning design and the prediction research design were used. The participants of this research consisted of 55 undergraduate students studying in different departments of a university in Western Canada. The data were collected with “Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Scale (OTSES)” developed by Barnard et al., (2009); “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)” developed by Pintrich et al., (1991); “Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ)” developed by Miltiadou and Yu (2000); and “demographic form”. This study did not determine a significant relationship between university students' total scores of OSLQ, OTSES, MSLQ, and their GPAs. Instead, the study found that university students' total scores of OSLQ, OTSES, MSLQ did not significantly predict their GPAs and online GPAs.

Keywords: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, Motivation, GPA, Online Academic Achievement, University Students

Turkish Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Decisions on Various Socioscientific Issues: SEE-SEP Model-Analysis

Hamdi Karakaş & Gülseda Eyceyurt Türk

pp. 182 - 208   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.9


The science curriculum in the Turkish education system includes socioscientific issues (SSI) as a context for developing students' reasoning skills, scientific thinking habits, and decision-making skills from an early age. Conducting activities on real problems with teachers and pre-service teachers based on SSI and making decisions considering different dimensions in SSI can provide a better explanation and transfer of the content dimension of the subject. It was found that SSI studies are conducted with science teachers and pre-service science teachers in Türkiye. In this study, activities with different SSIs were organized with pre-service primary teachers, and the decisions of pre-service primary teachers on various socioscientific issues were evaluated considering different dimensions (sociology/culture, environment, economy, science, ethics/morality, and policy) using the SEE-SEP model. Nine different SSI scenarios were presented to 60 pre-service primary teachers in the Central Anatolian region of Türkiye, and they were asked to make a decision in dilemma situations and justify it. It was found that hydroelectric power plants (HEPP), mining, and electric vehicles are highly favored by pre-service primary teachers, while GMOs, cloning, and the establishment of industrial zones are not highly favoured, and they are undecided about biotechnology. It is concluded that the pre-service primary teachers' decisions to support various SSI are mainly economic and scientific, while the environmental and ethical/moral dimensions lead mainly to non-support and indecision.

Keywords: Socioscientific Issue, Decision-Making, SEE-SEP Model, Pre-Service Primary Teachers

Improving the Science Process Skills and Science Literacy of Primary School Pre-service Teachers with Different Parental Education Levels

Sema Aydın Ceran & Seher Esen

pp. 209 - 232   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.10


This research was undertaken to improve the science process skills (SPS) and science literacy (SL) of primary school pre-service teachers with different family backgrounds in terms of parental education. It was planned with a quasi-experimental design with pretests and posttests in the framework of quantitative research methodology. Eighty-four first-year students from the primary school education departments of two different public universities participated in this 14-week-long study conducted in the spring semester of 2021-2022. Classes were taught with a focus on SPS for the experimental groups and within the scope of a textbook developed for basic science education in primary school for the control groups. Data were collected by administering the SPS Test and SL Test. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and MANOVA were used. The results showed that SPS-focused education processes significantly increased the SPS and SL of the pre-service teachers. Furthermore, prior to the implementation, participants in both experimental and control groups whose parents were had bachelor degree or high school diploma ranked higher in terms of SPS and SL. While the gap in SPS arising from parental education level was closed in the experimental groups as a result of the implementation, the advantage of having a bachelor degree parent continued for SL. These results are discussed in the context of primary school pre-service teachers regarding parental education levels, SPS, and SL.

Keywords: Scientific Literacy, Scientific Process Skills, Primary School Pre-Service Teacher, Science Education, Parents’ Educational Attainment

Turkish and Italian University Students’ Views on Visual Literacy

Gamze Çelik

pp. 233 - 254   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.11


The purpose of this study was to explore the Italian and Turkish students’ perceptions of their visual literacy ability. The study used the qualitative research methodology and interviews as the data collection tool. Purposeful sampling was used for sample selection. Descriptive analysis was selected as the analysis method since it was determined to be the most appropriate analysis method for the research. A semi-structured data collection tool was used. The study's sample consisted of thirty-two university students studying in Turkey and Italy. Turkish interviewees included sixteen university students who studied at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in Turkey. Italy's sample also consisted of sixteen university students who studied at La Sapienza University in Italy. The study took into consideration equal gender representation. The findings indicate that neither Italian nor Turkish students received a course on visual literacy. According to the results, students utilised maps, graphs, slides, pictures, caricatures, movies, and timelines in their classes.

Keywords: Visual Literacy, Italy, Turkey, Qualitative Research

Investigating Syrian Learners’ Needs According to Various Variables within the Framework of Teaching Turkish to Children as a Second Language

Hati̇ce Di̇lek Çağ

pp. 255 - 273   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.12


The current study aims at identifying and analysing language needs of Syrian children under temporary protection. In line with this, we administered the “Needs Scale for Learning Turkish”, “Needs Scale for the Content” and “Needs Scale for the Process” developed by Çağ (2022) to 194 primary school students. We adopted survey model, one of quanlitative research methods, and used percentage, arithmetical mean, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests to conduct the analysis. We concluded at the end of the analysis that students’ needs about the goal of learning Turkish included establishing a communication with the teacher, having a job and finding a job in Türkiye in the future. The study findings revealed that students’ goals of learning Turkish varied significantly according to grade level, time period of living in Türkiye and use of Turkish out of school, whereas there was no significant difference according to gender. On the other hand, students’ needs in terms of skills were not affected by grade level, gender, time of living in Türkiye and the frequency of using Turkish out of school. The study findings also showed that students’ needs in terms of methods and techniques, materials, subjects and themes were affected only by grade level, but not affected by gender, time period of living in Türkiye and frequency of using Turkish out of school. In the light of the study findings, it seems possible to state that students meet the need of learning Turkish mostly at school, so teachers and schools serve an important function in that sense.

Keywords: Language Need Analysis, Teaching Turkish as a Second Language, Teaching Turkish To Children as a Second Language

Translating the CEFR Companion Volume (2020) into Turkish: The Real Experience Unraveled

Servet Çelik, Yasemin Kırkgöz, Pelin Irgin, Deniz Şallı-Çopur, Şakire Erbay Çetinkaya, Mustafa Kurt, Bahtiyar Makaroğlu, Bilal Karaca, Hasan Kavgacı, Ayhan Ozturk & Nazlınur Göktürk-Tüney

pp. 274 - 293   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.13


The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is one of the most widely consulted reference works that define international standards for the learning, teaching, and assessment of languages. Since its appearance in 2001, the CEFR has been translated into more than 40 languages, including Turkish, making it the second most-translated document of the Council of Europe (CoE) after the European Convention of Human Rights. The CEFR was complemented by the Companion Volume with New Descriptors in 2018. This provisional version was later replaced by the CEFR Companion Volume (CV) in 2020, which includes added descriptors for mediation, online interaction, plurilingual/pluricultural competence, and sign language competences, ensuring modality-inclusive formulations in adapted illustrative descriptors for sign languages and gender-neutrality in all descriptors. The CEFR CV has already been translated into French, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish, and translations to several other languages are underway and expected to become available shortly. The Turkish translation was completed in October 2021 by a committed team of scholars with the initiative and coordination of the Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) in cooperation with the CoE. The translation of the CEFR Companion Volume into Turkish is an excellent example of how hard work and perseverance pay off. The translation team and others who have contributed to the work have demonstrated a fine example of sheer dedication, patience, and multidisciplinary collaboration to create a reader-friendly text to guide anyone involved in language teaching and testing—from teachers, learners, and material developers to educational institutions, researchers, and employers. This paper uncovers the background story, events, and actions behind this text for users to better understand its intricacies, nuances, and complexities. It is anticipated that the “backstage information” shared here will provide insights for prospective translators of the CEFR CV into other languages.

Keywords: CEFR, Companion Volume, Translation, Turkish, Council of Europe