International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 18 Issue 4 (December 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631



Original Articles

The Effect of Human Capital as an Output of Education on Productivity: A Panel Data Analysis for Developing Countries

Kadir Sain & Kurtuluş Bozkurt

pp. 7 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.1


In the rapidly changing atmosphere of the global economy, productivity has become a very important concept for long-term economic growth, development, regional and global competitiveness, raising social living standards and increasing the level of welfare for countries. In the 21st century, when scientific knowledge, technology, innovation, R&D and entrepreneurship manifest themselves in every stage of the production process, human capital has come to the fore as an important and determining factor that increases productivity. In the current study, the effect of human capital, one of the most important outputs of education, on country productivity was analyzed for 24 developing countries, including Turkey, which are in the upper middle income group. In the application part, a panel data set was created for the 24 countries included in the study with the series obtained from the database of PWT10.0 for the period of 1980-2019. The Human Capital Index was used to reveal the human capital status of the countries included in the analysis and the Total Factor Productivity Index was used to reveal the productivity status. The Granger Panel Causality Test was employed to determine whether there is a short-term relationship and the Westerlund Panel Cointegration Test was employed to determine whether there is a long-term relationship between the two variables. As a result of a bilateral causality relationship was found between human capital and productivity in the short-term and a cointegration relationship in the long-term. The study is important and different from other studies in that it focuses on the concepts of human capital and productivity, which have a very limited place in the education literature, although they are directly related to education, and it is grounded on an interdisciplinary approach (bringing together education, sociology and econometrics).

Keywords: Education, human capital, productivity, developing countries, panel data analysis

Implementation of VR Technologies in Language Learning Settings: A Systematic Literature Review

Oya Ozgun & Olgun Sadık

pp. 32 - 61   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.2


Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology with a potential impact on education. Due to cost and usability limitations, it has not been used extensively. However, recent research studies suggested VR as a learning environment with benefits on students’ learning performance through experience. It especially has various benefits for language learners. Learning a new language requires interaction and an immersive learning experience. In order to reveal its benefits and challenges and make suggestions for future implementations, this study focused on using VR in language learning and reviewed the literature in terms of how VR was used in language learning environments. The researchers systematically discovered 32 studies between 2018 and 2022 and examined them in terms of research methods, languages, school groups, VR tools, benefits, and limitations of using VR in a language learning environment. The researchers found that using VR in a language learning environment influenced learners’ motivation and academic performance in a positive way. In addition, VR makes the learning environment more realistic, engaged, simulated, and interactive. However, using VR for a long time may cause some health problems for some age groups. It was also noted that interaction between students and teachers was low, but the interaction between the environment and students was high. Therefore, using VR in language learning may decrease instructors’ control in the learning environment. The researchers argue that VR is an effective tool for increasing academic performance but has some challenges for teachers and students regarding technical constraints and interaction. The implications and recommendations of this study inform the researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and administrators about how to implement VR in language learning environments.

Keywords: virtual reality, language learning, technological tools, benefit, limitations

The Effect of Family-centered "I Recognize My Emotions Asynchronous Activity Series" on Children's Emotion Regulation Skills

Volkan Kanburoğlu, Esin Dibek, Asude BALABAN DAĞAL & Ozana Ural

pp. 62 - 81   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.3


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of emotion-related video activities in the "Family-Centered I Recognize My Emotions Asynchronous Activity Series" which is prepared for children on children's emotion regulation skills. Within the framework of this main purpose, differences in children's emotion regulation skill levels were determined according to the demographic data obtained both from the whole group and from the experimental group of children included in the pre and post-tests. At the beginning of the study, 103 children participated in the research. However only 25 children were able to complete the study. In this study, the four-point Likert type "Emotion Regulation Skills" scale consisting of 24 items, adapted to Turkish by Batum and Yağmurlu in 2007, was used. It was conducted as quasi-experimental research in a single-group pretest-posttest model. In the part of the research conducted with 103 children, it was found out that the children of mothers with postgraduate education degree had higher emotional regulation skill levels than those of mothers with undergraduate education degree. It has been revealed that children whose mothers were employed have higher emotional regulation skills than children whose mothers do not work. In addition, as a result of the series of asynchronous video-based activities given to the children in the second part of the study, it was observed that the children's post-test results increased significantly in terms of emotion regulation skill scores.

Keywords: Technology, asynchronous education, video-based education, preschool, emotional regulation skills.

A New Chapter is Being Written About Writing Instruction: Instructional Leadership at K-12 Levels in The Age of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Pınar Ayyıldız & Adem Yılmaz

pp. 82 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.4


In this study, in which artificial intelligence applications are examined at the K-12 level, the discussions are multi-dimensional. The use of artificial intelligence applications at the K-12 level, and especially the integrated use of online writing tools into the writing lessons, has led to the occurrence of plagiarism from time to time. In the first place, the fact that artificial intelligence applications create the feeling of being able to think like a human causes student to fully trust this software. What is more, when the subject is approached in terms of educational leadership, teachers' transfer of experience and high level of interaction during teaching and learning decreases. Because artificial intelligence applications individualize the education process and allow students to work more independently from the teacher and from peers. That being said, there are some points that are worth noting here. AI applications should be used as a tool, not an end because when these applications are utilized accountability cannot always be attained. The number of teachers who are already competent in informing and supervising students against malpractices is not sufficient. The fact that teachers are not fully competent in this respect poses a danger to the control and safety of the process. In order for artificial intelligence applications to be exercised effectively at the K-12 level, some software languages and coding skills must be acquired. Lastly, important steps need to be taken towards the future of artificial intelligence applications. Each country should include them in their education systems through their curricula from an early age along with AI applications. In this direction, teacher training programs should also be reviewed. It is of crucial importance to raise the awareness of the society on artificial intelligence, and about ethical rules and morality.

Keywords: Instructional Leadership, Artificial Intelligence (AI), K-12 Levels.

Examining the Views of Teachers and Parents on the Reflection of the TV Series Watched by Primary School Students on the Games Played in School

İsmail Gelen & Dilek Balcı

pp. 102 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.5


This research was carried out to determine the opinions of teachers and parents about the reflection of the TV series watched by primary school students on the games they play. In the study, an interview form was applied to teachers and parents, who belonged to the study group from which qualitative data was collected. The participants of the research were chosen among the 3rd and 4th-grade primary school students’ classroom teachers and parents in Samsun province and its districts (Alçam, Asarcık, Atakum, Ayvacık, Bafra, Çarşamba, Havza, İlkadım, Kavak, Lâdik, Ondokuz Mayıs, Salpazarı, Tekkeköy, Terme, Vezirköprü, Yakakent) in the 2020-2021 academic year. The study group of the research consisted of 61 parents and 61 teachers. The analysis of the data was carried out by using the descriptive analysis technique through the qualitative analysis program MAXQDA 22. As a result of the analysis of the opinions obtained from the teachers and parents, it was concluded that the 3rd and 4th grade students who watched TV series were influenced by these TV shows. They played mostly violent games and imitated the TV series characters they watched earlier in their plays.

Keywords: Primary school, TV series, play

Applications for Raising Academic Performance in Terms of Equal Opportunities in Education in Countries with High Achievement in PISA

Suna Özden & İlknur Maya

pp. 126 - 141   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.6


This paper aims to analyse the applications for raising students’ and schools’ academic performance in the context of equal opportunities in education in such countries as Canada, Finland and Singapore with high achievement in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2018 and thus to make recommendations to our country- Türkiye. A qualitative study method was used in this current study. Document analysis technique, a method of qualitative study, was used in collecting the data. The data collected were then described under certain headings through descriptive analysis. The applications for raising academic performance in the context of equal opportunities in education in certain countries with high achievement in PISA (2018) were analysed under the headings of “applications of academic support for students in the context of equal opportunities in education in the countries” and “applications of academic support for schools in the context of equal opportunities in education in the countries”. It was found in consequence that mostly local or school-based applications were available for students and schools in the countries. It is evident that applications are performed within a system. Interventions are made according to feedback. All the stakeholders take on active roles in the process.  More systematic and local configuration involving all the stakeholders is needed in our country.           

Keywords: Equal opportunities, achievement, education

Needs Analysis of Teachers Providing Science Education to Visually Impaired Students and Their Students

Mirac Furkan Bayar & Özlem Ağgül

pp. 142 - 164   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.7


The aim of this research is to identify the needs of teachers providing science education to visually impaired students and their students and to develop various solution proposals based on these needs. The study involved 1 Science teacher, 2 Special Education teachers, and 10 visually impaired students from a state primary and middle school in the center of Erzurum province. The research design followed a qualitative approach with a case study design. The data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that the needs of teachers providing science education to visually impaired students fall into two themes: needs arising from the teacher and needs influenced by external factors. Similarly, the needs of visually impaired students were categorized into two themes: needs arising from the students themselves and needs influenced by external factors. Teacher-related needs included the need for concretization and description, material design, individualized instructional selection, technological proficiency, and the ability to activate sensory organs. External factors affecting teachers' needs included the need for materials, laboratories, reference books, appropriate training, in-service training, parental cooperation, and personalized curriculum. Student-related needs encompassed education environment and methods, technology and assistive tools, family support and counseling services, physical accessibility in the school environment, alternative and augmented communication in education, and psychosocial support. External factors affecting students' needs included social interaction, academic motivation, academic achievement and exam anxiety, special education and counseling services, note-taking and organizational skills, and daily living skills.

Keywords: Visually impaired students, Science education, Teacher needs, Student needs

Examination of Prospective Teachers’ Reading Habits and Speaking Self-Efficacies

Aslı Yüksel, Fatma Betul Şenol & Tuğçe Akyol

pp. 165 - 191   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.8


This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the reading habits and speaking self-efficacies of prospective teachers. Correlational survey method, which is one of the qualitative research models, was adopted for the study. A total of 114 prospective teachers attending the first grade of Classroom Teaching and Pre-school Education undergraduate programs of Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University’s Faculty of Education during 2018-2019 Academic Year’s spring semester formed the target population of the study.  Since the whole of target population was possible to reach, sampling was not applied. “Attitude Scale for Reading Habit” and “Scale for Speaking Self-Efficacy” developed respectively by Gömleksiz (2004) and Katrancı and Melanlıoğlu (2013) were used as data collection tools for the study.  For the analysis of the data, Mann-Whitney U Test, which is one of the non-parametric tests, was used in two groups and Kruskal-Wallis H Test was used in more than two groups. Also, Spearman Correlation test was applied to determine the relationship between the reading habits and self-efficacies of prospective teachers.  It was inferred from the study that the attitudes of prospective teachers through the reading habits and speaking self-efficacies are high. It was found that their attitudes towards the reading habits significantly differ according to their gender and reading frequencies, but not to their branches and library visiting frequencies.  Moreover, it was concluded that the prospective teachers’ speaking self-efficacies do not significantly differ according to their genders, branches, library visiting frequencies, and reading frequencies.  However, it was found out that there is a statistically significant, weak, positive correlation between the reading habits and speaking self-efficacies of prospective teachers. 

Keywords: Prospective teacher, reading habit, speaking self-efficacy

An Examination of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students’ Intrinsic Motivation in Mathematics and Their Mathematics Achievement in Terms of Their Favorite Subject

Merve Orta & Barıs Cetın

pp. 192 - 214   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.9


The aim of this study is to explore the correlation between the intrinsic motivation of fourth-grade primary school students in mathematics and their academic performance in mathematics, while considering the factor of their favorite subject. The goal is to determine whether there is a difference in intrinsic motivation and achievement in terms of their favorite subject.

A convergent parallel design was used in the study. The sample of the research consisted of 142 students who participated in face-to-face research in the city center and districts of Çanakkale in the 2019/2020 academic year, as well as 109 students who participated in online research in the 2020/2021 academic year. The study group was comprised of 10 students, for whom the data were collected in face-to-face sessions, and 12 students who participated in the research online. The data for this study were collected using the "Mathematics Lesson Motivation Scale" developed by Balantekin and Oksal (2014), as well as the " Mathematics Lesson Achievement Test", "Demographic Form", and "Semi-Structured Interview Form" developed by the researchers. When examining the results of the research related to intrinsic motivation, significant differences were observed in both online and face-to-face data collection, with respect to the obtained data. According to the qualitative data obtained from this study, those students with intrinsic motivation were expected to perform well in the course. However, it was observed that regardless of their academic performance, all students were motivated towards the course. As a contrasting result, it was determined that the most successful student in the school did not possess intrinsic motivation towards the course.

Keywords: Mathematics, Motivation, ARCS Model of Motivation, Self-Determination Theory, Constructivist Approach

Studying Argumentation Writing Skills of Science Teacher Candidates on Covid-19 Pandemic and Their Opinions Regarding the Vaccine as a Socio-Scientific Issue

Çiğdem Çakır Şık, Elif Benzer & Sarvinaz Saparova

pp. 215 - 255   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.10


To see the reflections of scientific literacy in individuals’ daily life manners of is one of the most significant objectives of science education. In this context, it is thought that science teacher candidates are required to have the skills of socio-scientific issues and writing arguments on those subjects. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess science teacher candidates’ skills of writing argumentation on Covid-19 pandemic, which is a socio-scientific issue, and discuss their opinions on Covid-19 vaccine. Regarding this purpose, answers are sought for the problems “How are the writing argumentation skills of science teacher candidates on Covid-19 pandemic as a socio-scientific issue?” and “What are the opinions of science teacher candidates on Covid-19 vaccine?” The research is designed by using mixed method case study. The study group of the research consists of 33 teacher candidates who are second grade students enrolled in the department of science teaching in a state university in Istanbul. The data in this study are gathered via “Written Argumentation Form” in accordance with argumentation writing components of Cope et al. (2013). For the opinions of teacher candidates on Covid-19 vaccine, “Interview Form” including two open-end questions is used. In data analysis, Argumentation Assessment Rubric (AAR) is used for argumentation and for opinions related to the vaccine, content analysis is applied.  At the end of the research, it was found out that the teachers were successful in terms of creating “argument” and “result argument” while writing argumentation of which subject is socio-scientific, however they could not refute the counter claims adequately. Even though the teacher candidates approached Covid-19 pandemic scientifically in the arguments, it was founded out that they had hesitations about how to behave in Covid-19 pandemic considering their opinions on vaccines. Although the teacher candidates thought that it was a real pandemic and follow vaccine studies closely, vast majority stated that they did not want to be vaccinated or they were undecided about it. It is recommended to examine thoroughly the fact that vast majority of the teacher candidates thought pandemic was real, however they had different opinions on vaccines.

Keywords: Science education, socio-scientific issues, argumentation, Covid-19 pandemic.

Acceptance Scale of Interactive E-Books By Secondary School Students as a Digital Learning Resource: A Validity and Reliability Study

Ömer Kırbaş, Fatma Demirtaş, Fatih Doğan & Alptürk Akçölteki̇n

pp. 256 - 291   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.11


Today, the impact of information technologies can be seen in all areas of life. It is a necessity to use this technology to increase the quality of the field of education. A new learning environment can be created by transforming books, which are a part of education, into digital resources through information technologies. Accordingly, it is necessary to determine student acceptance in such learning environments. For this reason, this study, it is aimed to develop a measurement tool to determine the level of acceptance and use of interactive digital e-books by secondary school students. With the acceptance scale towards interactive e-books of secondary school students (IE-BAS), it is envisaged to determine both in-class activities and activity efficiency. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used as a basis for the development process of IE-BAS. This process was carried out in two steps. Validity analyzes were provided in study 1 and reliability analyzes in study 2. In Study 1, analyzes regarding the content validity and construct validity of draft IE-BAS were carried out. Accordingly, an item pool of 39 items was created in content validity studies and presented to the opinion of a team of 14 experts. Here, four items were excluded from scope validity because they did not provide sufficient kappa values. Afterward, the 35-item draft IE-BAS, whose content validity was ensured, was subjected to exploratory factor analyzes (EFA) for structural validity. As a result of the EFA analysis, 2 items were removed from the draft IE-BAS. EFA results revealed that the 33-item IE-BAS clustered in four factors indicating cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. These factors correspond to the perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), attitude towards use (UA), and behavioral intention (BI) variables in the TAM model. These four components explain 52.94% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for the 33-item IE-BAS to confirm the EFA results. In this statistic, 13 items were removed from IE-BTS. The fit indices obtained for the 20-item IE-BAS proved the accuracy of the proposed model in EFA. As a result of CFA, the fit indices for the model-data fit were quite good.Accordingly, the RMSEA, SRMR, GFI, AGFI, NFI, CFI and RFI value was determined as 0.043, 0.058, 0.924, 0.901, 0.909, 0.966 and 0.892, respectively. In the last validity study, the effects of the variables in the 20-item IE-BAS on each other were examined by structural equation modeling (SEM). Accordingly, the behavioral intention variable, which shows the behavioral response of the students, is significantly affected by the PEU, UA, and PU variables, that is, the motivation elements, which show the affective and cognitive responses. In Study 2, reliability analyzes of 20-item IE-BAS were performed. In this context, the internal consistency, item-total score reliability coefficient, and two-half test reliability of the 20-item IE-BAS were examined. Accordingly, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall IE-BAS was determined to be 0.914. Also the Spearman-Brown and Guttman half-split coefficients were found to be .740 and .850 for the first and second parts, respectively. According to these results, the reliability coefficients of Spearman-Brown, Guttman split-half, and Cronbach α were found to be sufficient. The results showed that the developed 20-item productive IE-BAS is a valid and reliable scale tool to measure secondary school students' acceptance towards interactive e-books as a digital learning environment.

Keywords: Validity, reliability, interactive e-book, technology acceptance model

The Impact of Using Model-Based Activities Based on the History of Mathematics in Geometry Instruction on Students' Geometry Anxiety

Şükrü Ilgün, Zehra Daştan & Esra Altıntaş

pp. 292 - 309   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.631.12


The aim of this study is to examine the impact of mathematical modeling activities using the history of mathematics on students' anxiety in geometry instruction. The study was conducted with 7th-grade students (n=30) studying in a public school during the first semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. In the research, nested mixed pattern from mixed research methods was used. Mathematical modeling activities based on the history of mathematics, designed by the researcher in accordance with the 7th-grade geometry curriculum, were implemented with the study group. Data were collected through written worksheets during the implementation process. Prior to and after the implementation process, a geometry anxiety scale was administered to the study group, and student opinions were obtained. The data obtained from the implementation were analyzed using content analysis. The research findings revealed a decrease in students' anxiety towards geometry and a positive change in students' perceptions of geometry.

Keywords: History of Mathematics, Model-Eliciting Activities, Mathematical Modeling, Geometry Teaching