International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 18 Issue 1 (March 2023)

Original Articles

The Distribution of Interactional Space and Collaboration in EFL Task-Based Peer Interactions

Kadriye Aksoy-Pekacar

pp. 8 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.1


This paper focuses on the influence of task types, namely divergent and convergent tasks, on the interactional space of learners and the amount of collaboration in EFL adult learners’ interactions naturally emerging from performing each type of task. To define interactional space, behavioural engagement measurement was adopted, and the total number of turns and words were quantified to define the distribution of learner talk in each task. Additionally, the categories of collaborative behaviours were quantified for both task types to illustrate their distribution in the tasks. The data of this study involve eleven hours of learner interactions collected from an EFL context where the learners voluntarily participated in a speaking club and completed eight tasks. The interactions were audio-recorded and used for the analysis of the influence of task types on learners’ L2 production and the distribution of collaboration in each task. The results yield a difference in the amount of L2 production between tasks; for example, convergent tasks facilitate more L2 turns and more L2 words than divergent tasks although the mean length of utterance is higher in divergent tasks. Similarly, the distribution of collaborative behaviours is mostly higher in convergent tasks. The results are discussed in relation to both interactionist and sociocultural theories of L2 learning and some implications are also provided based on the results.

Keywords: Convergent and divergent tasks, peer interaction, collaboration, task engagement

The Impact of Gamification on Secondary School Students' Grammar Proficiency

Gözde Koç & Selim Soner Sütçü

pp. 31 - 49   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.2


The aim of this study is to investigate the academic achievement of 6th grade students in grammar course gamified with an online tool and their opinions regarding the application. The study employed quasi-experimental design and a semi-structured interview was utilised to obtain the qualitative data. The application lasted for 6 weeks during which the experimental group received gamified grammar education whereas the control group received content-based language learning. Pre-test and post-tests were applied to both groups to check if there were any differences between the scores. Since the quantitative data were not parametric, Wilcoxon Matched – Pairs Signed Ranks Test and Mann Whitney U Test were used in the analysis of the data. Also, a semi-structured interview was utilised to learn about the opinions of the students in experimental group. The results yielded a significant difference in favor of students who received gamified grammar learning. The results were also supported by the positive opinions of the students towards gamification of grammar with an online tool as an in-class material.

Keywords: English Language Learning, Grammar Proficiency, Computer Assisted Language Learning, Gamification, Kahoot

The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Knowledge Management in the Relationship between Technological Leadership Behaviors of School Principals and Data-Driven Decision-Making

Mehmet Sabi̇r Çevi̇k & Emine Doğan

pp. 50 - 76   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.3


The objective of this study is to contribute to the increasing database regarding the effects of school leadership on teachers’ data usage by investigating the relationship between the technological leadership behaviors of school principals and data-driven decision-making at their schools based on the mediating and moderating effects of the knowledge management variable. 408 teachers from 14 provinces of Turkey in the 2020-2021 academic year were included in the study. The School Principal Technological Leadership Competency Scale, the Knowledge Management Scale, and the Data-Driven Decision-Making in Schools Scale were used as data collection tools in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used in data analysis. The study results demonstrate the school principals' practices of technological leadership, knowledge management at schools, and data-driven decision-making to be high. It has been found out in the study that knowledge management implementations play a mediating role in data-driven decision-making at schools by increasing the technological leadership competency levels of school principals, while not having a moderating effect on the relationship between technological leadership and data-driven decision-making. In addition, technological leadership and knowledge management have been identified to be significant and positive predictors of data-driven decision-making. Based on the study results, suggestions have been made to improve the technological leadership behaviors and knowledge management implementations of school principals at schools.

Keywords: Technological Leadership, Knowledge Management, Data-Driven Decision-Making, Mediating Effect, Moderating Effect

Evaluation of the Training to Make Preservice Science Teachers Use Web 2.0 Tools during Teaching

Ayberk Erdogan & Nagihan Yıldırım

pp. 77 - 97   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.4


This study examines the effect of a training program on pre-service teachers' ability to design materials using Web 2.0 tools by applying training to pre-service science teachers to use Web 2.0 tools. In the research, a holistic single case study method was used.  Semi-structured interviews, “Teachers' Digital Teaching Material Development Self-Efficacy Scale” and document analysis were used as data collection tools.  The sample of the research consists of 16 pre-service science teachers studying in the Science teaching program of the Faculty of Education of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University in the fall semester of the academic year 2021-2022. The "Teachers' Digital Teaching Material Development Self-Efficacy Scale" was applied to the pre-service teachers twice as a pre- and post-test. The training for the teaching of Web 2.0 tools was completed during a total of 25 40-minute lessons outside of the participants' class hours and in three weeks. At the end of the study, improved teaching Web 2.0 tools for education, pre-service teachers teaching material that has a positive impact on developing digital competencies, to increase their awareness of Web 2.0 tools for use in the learning process, it provides enough about to be able to use Web 2.0 tools to start to see and realize the importance of the concept of Web 2.0 tools in teaching that the use is concluded. In accordance with these results, in order to use the Web 2.0 tools for research, pre-service teachers, elective courses in undergraduate programs, etc. the proposals have been terminated.

Keywords: Preservice science teachers, science education, Web 2.0 tools

Screen Time of Gifted Students During The Pandemic Period: A Mixed Method Research

Çiğdem Nilüfer Umar

pp. 98 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.5


The purpose of this research is to explain the effects of the qualitative results obtained from the data which is gathered from the interviews with gifted students and their parents regarding the screen use of gifted students between the ages of 12-18 on the potential screen addictions of gifted students. This study is mixed methods research. The rationale for choosing mixed methods research is complementarity, based on the fact that results from quantitative and qualitative data clarify and detail each other's results. For the research, explanatory sequential/ (sequential quantitative → qualitative) mixed methods research design was used. Quantitative data of the study were collected through a questionnaire created by the researcher from a group of 160 gifted students aged 12-18 and 100 parents. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed by ratio and frequency analysis. In the light of the findings obtained from the quantitative results, structured interviews were conducted with 16 gifted students and 17 parents with purposeful sampling from the research group. Content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data obtained from the interviews. Quantitative and qualitative research results were brought together in the mixed methods study and the results were integrated. The findings of the research were explained under sub-headings such as the duration of screen use before and during the pandemic, the number of technological devices used, the time spent in front of the screen, the purpose for which this time was used, and the effects of the time spent in front of the screen on students. With the pandemic, the time spent in front of the screen has increased, the duration of sleep has increased, the purposes of using the screen have changed, and the situation of being uncomfortable and unhappy in case of not being able to reach the screen has increased. As a suggestion to this situation, it is suggested to carry out awareness raising activities for families and children.

Keywords: Gifted students, mixed methods research, Covid-19, screen addiction, parents, effects of the pandemic

Investigation of the Relationship between Individual Innovation Profiles of Special Education Teacher Candidates and Their Tendency towards the Use of Technology in Class

Nergiz Atak & Cansu Çaka

pp. 129 - 144   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.6


The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between the individual innovativeness profiles of special education teacher candidates and their tendencies towards technology use in the lesson. The study group of the research designed in the survey model consists of 194 special education teacher candidates. Research data were obtained with “Personal Information Form”, “Individual Innovativeness Scale”, and “Scale of Tendency towards the Use of Technology in Class”. Descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The research will contribute to the literature by revealing the relationship between the individual innovativeness profiles of special education teacher candidates and their tendencies towards the use of technology in the course, and the findings will be guiding for relevant individuals and institutions in terms of both research to be made in the field of innovation and professional development of special education teachers in terms of their professional development is considered.

Keywords: Individual innovation, special education, technology integration

Evaluation of Educational Games Prepared by Mathematics Teacher Candidates According to Game Design Key Model

Gülçin Oflaz

pp. 145 - 174   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.7


If chosen carefully according to teaching purposes and incorporated into the curriculum, games can enhance teaching and learning. The use of didactic games while teaching maths can support students' motivation and performance during the lesson. Therefore, educational games should be preferred in maths classes as an alternative teaching method. In this study, math teacher candidates' processes of developing educational games were observed, and the aim was to determine their opinions about the process. 52 teacher candidates form the participants of this research, which was conducted as a case study. Teacher candidates were informed about the properties of educational games, and they were asked to develop a mathematical game according to the Game Design Key Model developed by Özkan (2018). The research data was obtained using Game Design Key Model, structured interview forms, and daily plans. The obtained data was analyzed with descriptive and content analysis techniques. The games developed for the study were categorized according to their grade level, design purpose, learning area, game type, the way the game was developed, goal, the obstacle of the game, basic mechanics, feedback, and the number of players. Teacher candidates' views on the process were categorized as factors that make the process difficult and easier, and things that are enjoyed and disliked during the process.

Keywords: Educational Games, Game Design Key Model, Mathematics Teacher Candidates

Is Self-Criticism Really a Trigger of Psychological Problems? An Analysis of Self-Criticism in the Context of Turkish University Students

Nesrullah Okan

pp. 175 - 195   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.8


This study aims to examine the concept of self-criticism in the context of Western and Eastern cultures and to examine graduate students’ perceptions regarding this concept. When reviewing the Western literature, researchers have generally associated the idea of self-criticism with psychopathology, while researchers in Eastern cultures typically interpret the notion of self-criticism positively. This qualitative study consists of three stages and uses open-ended questions to measure the perceptions of students from different graduate programs with regard to self-criticism. The researcher asked the students about their perceptions toward self-criticism in the first stage, questions about the concepts they’d associated with self-criticism in the second stage, and questions involving metaphors about what students liken to self-criticism in the third stage. Within the scope of the research, the researcher accessed 41 students for the first stage, 52 students for the second stage, and 32 students for the third stage. In all three studies conducted within the scope of this research, it was concluded that self-criticism is not perceived negatively in Turkish culture but rather evaluated as positive. Although there have been a few negative themes, self-criticism is generally perceived as a concept that brings people well. The most crucial aspect that makes this research valuable is that it provides a critical perspective on the pairing of self-criticism with psychological problems in the psychology literature. It is understood that self-criticism is seen as an essential source of individual development in Turkish culture rather than being the source of psychological problems. When the psychology literature is examined, it is seen that self-criticism is generally considered the trigger of psychological problems. Self-criticism is regarded as a situation that harms self-esteem. However, in eastern cultures, self-criticism is accepted as a prerequisite for a healthy identity. In this study, this conclusion was reached in three stages.

Keywords: Self-Criticism, Interview, Metaphor, Qualitative Research, Experience

Teaching the 21st Century Learning Skills with the Critical Thinking Technique Based on the Argumentation Method

Okan Sarıgöz

pp. 196 - 218   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.9


In today’s world, rather than students who memorize information and only perform assigned tasks, education is more oriented towards raising inquisitive individuals with a strong consciousness. Contemporary education, thus, seeks to provide students with the abilities to think critically and analytically, to question or prove with arguments, and to build causal relationships between subjects in order to use the knowledge learned when needed. Taking all these expectations into account, teaching critical thinking skills and techniques based on the argumentation method can help students progress both cognitively and behaviorally. To this end, the goal of this qualitative case study is to provide students with the 21st century learning skills using the critical thinking technique on the basis of argumentation-based learning. The research group comprises of 40 students from Hatay Mustafa Kemal University’s Faculty of Education. In the study, a semi-structured interview form was employed to gather data. As a result of the research, two main conclusions were made. Firstly, subjects can be better comprehended through classes that incorporate the use of ideas, views, proof, or evidence. Such classes can be taught in greater depth and without much difficulty. Furthermore, students’ speaking and oral abilities, as well as comprehension skills, increase in sessions taught using the argumentation method and critical thinking strategies. Yet, it should be noted that in order to attain these results, lessons should be planned in accordance with the mentioned methods.

Keywords: Argumentation Method, Critical Thinking, The 21st Century Learning Skills, Proving

Investigation of the Relationship between Pre-service Social Studies Teachers' Attitudes towards Purchasing Geographically Indicated Products and their Status as Conscious Consumers

Abdulkerim Diktaş & Kenan Baş

pp. 219 - 236   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.10


The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between social studies teacher candidates' attitudes towards purchasing geographically indicated products and their status as conscious consumers. The study was carried out with a total of 211 teacher candidates studying at two different state universities in Turkey in the spring semester of 2022-2023 academic year. The relational survey model, one of the quantitative research types, was utilized in the study. The data in the study were collected through the Attitude Scale Towards Buying Geographically Indicated Products, developed by Yüce & Korucuk (2020), and the Conscious Consumer Scale developed by Buğday (2015). The SPSS 22nd statistical program was used in the analysis of the quantitative data obtained. As a result of the study, the following findings were attained. It was found that the attitudes of teacher candidates towards purchasing geographically indicated products and their state as conscious consumers did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in terms of gender; similarly, it was observed that there was no significant difference in terms of the "parent average monthly income" variable. Nevertheless, it was revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards purchasing geographically indicated products and their status as conscious consumers.

Keywords: Geographical Indication, Social Studies, Conscious Consumer

Examination of Creativity Levels of Preschool Children

Elçin Yazıcı Arıcı & Hasan Kağan Keskin

pp. 237 - 250   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.11


The study aims to examine whether the interaction of parents' education and income levels has a significant effect on the creativity scores of preschool children. The research was conducted in a district of Ankara, where parents are thought to vary in terms of income and education level. 123 children studying in independent kindergartens affiliated with the Ministry of National Education participated in the research. “Early Childhood Creativity Scale” was used as a data collection tool in the study. In the study, a 2x3 two-way analysis of variance was preferred because it was aimed to examine the possible effects or interaction effects of categorical independent variables on the continuous dependent variable. Test procedures were run after ANOVA assumptions were checked and it was observed that the assumptions were met. As a result of the research, it was determined that the interaction between parents' education levels and income levels had an effect on their children's creativity. When looking only through the main effects, independent of the interaction effect, it was determined that the level of parental education was influential on the creativity scores of the children, but the income level alone was not.

Keywords: Creativity, Preschool Children, Education Level, Income Level

The Effects of Out-Of-Class Learning on Students’ Interest in Science and Scientific Attitudes: The Case of School Garden

Esra Saraç Yıldırım & Mustafa Doğru

pp. 251 - 272   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.12


This study aims to reveal the effects of out-of-class learning activities conducted in the school garden on students’ interest in science and their scientific attitudes. Research designed as a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design of quantitative research methods. The research group of the study consists of 37, 7th grade students enrolled in a public school in Turkiye. Reproduction, growth and development in plants were conducted through school garden-based science activities for seven weeks. The research data were collected using Science Interest Scale and Scientific Attitude Scale. The study findings showed that garden-based activities have a moderate and close to moderate effect on students’ interests in science and scientific attitudes. As per these findings, we can say that school gardens are out-of-class learning environments that can be used to help increase students’ interest and attitudes toward science.

Keywords: Out-Of-Class Learning, School Garden, Scientific Interests, Scientific Attitudes, Science Education

The Relationship Between Students' 21st-Century Skills and Academic Performance in Science and Mathematics

Mehmet Akif Bircan & Emrah Akman

pp. 273 - 291   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2023.525.13


This study aimed to reveal a relationship between high school students' 21st-century skills and academic performance in mathematics and science courses. The research was designed in a relational survey model. In the study group, there were 596 students. Descriptive statistics, the one-way analysis of variance, the Pearson correlation test, and simple partial regression analyzed the research data. As a result of the research, it was concluded that the 21st-century skills of high school students are above the intermediate level. It is also revealed that there is no significant difference between the dimensions other than critical thinking and problem-solving of 21st-century skills scores according to the type of high school. According to high school type, a difference was found in the dimension of critical thinking and problem-solving. It has been concluded that there is a significant relationship between the 21st-century skills scores of high school students and their academic performances in science and mathematics courses. Information and technology literacy, critical thinking and problem-solving, entrepreneurship and innovation skills, and 21st-century skills overall scores could be used to predict academic performances in science and mathematics courses. The other variables like social responsibility and career awareness cannot predict academic performances in science and mathematics courses concerning this study.

Keywords: High School Students, 21st-Century Skills, Math, Science, Academic Performance