International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2023, Vol. 18(3) 381-404

The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Positive Experiences at School and School Attachment

Gökhan Demirhan & Seval Koçak

pp. 381 - 404   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2023.600.18   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2308-10-0004.R1

Published online: September 30, 2023  |   Number of Views: 58  |  Number of Download: 158


Abstract

Due to its social and personal outcomes, the level of attainment of the objectives of fundamental education has always been a topic of global concern. Enhancing children’s level of success in every discipline by assuring school attachment is one of the most essential factors in accomplishing the objectives of basic education. In this study, the influence of positive school experiences and school satisfaction on school attachment was investigated. In this context, the mediating effect of school satisfaction on the relationship between 3rd and 4th-grade primary school students’ perceptions of positive experiences at school and their school attachment was examined. Using the Positive Experiences at School Scale, the School Satisfaction Scale, and The School Attachment Scale for Children and Adolescents, data were collected from 912 students enrolled in elementary school. The results indicated that positive school experiences had an effect on school attachment both directly and indirectly via the partial mediation effect of school satisfaction. Based on the findings, recommendations were formed.

Keywords: attachment to school, attachment to the teacher, attachment to friends, primary education, positive school experience, school satisfaction.


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Demirhan, G. & Kocak, S. (2023). The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Positive Experiences at School and School Attachment . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(3), 381-404. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.18

Harvard
Demirhan, G. and Kocak, S. (2023). The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Positive Experiences at School and School Attachment . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(3), pp. 381-404.

Chicago 16th edition
Demirhan, Gokhan and Seval Kocak (2023). "The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Positive Experiences at School and School Attachment ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 18 (3):381-404. doi:10.29329/epasr.2023.600.18.

References
  1. Abla, C., & Fraumeni, B. R. (2019). Student engagement: Evidence-based strategies to boost academic and social emotional results. McREL International. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ali, M. M., & Hassan, N. (2018). Defining concepts of student engagement and factors contributing to their engagement in schools. Creative Education, 9, 2161-2170. [Google Scholar]
  3. Alsaç, D. (2019). Investigation the effect of positive school experiences and the quality of school life to the school satisfaction on primary school graders. Master Thesis. Marmara University& Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Türkiye. [Google Scholar]
  4. Altunkum, S., Toğrul, T., & Çam, Z. (2023). School satisfaction: A theoretical analysis. Electronic Journal of Education Sciences, 12(23), 64-83. [Google Scholar]
  5. Angın, Ö., & Çetinkaya, S. (2021). The effects of educational game based comprehension activities on listening comprehension skill of 4th grade students. Trakya Journal of Education, 11(1), 333-346. [Google Scholar]
  6. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386. [Google Scholar]
  7. Argon, T., & İsmetoğlu, M. (2016). The relationshıp between high school students’ perception of quality of school life and school engagement levels. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 5(Special Issue), 238-249. [Google Scholar]
  8. Axelson, R. D., & Flick, A. (2010). Defining student engagement. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 43(1), 38–43. [Google Scholar]
  9. Baker, J. A., Dilly, L. J., Aupperlee, J. L., & Patil, S. A. (2003). The developmental context of school satisfaction: Schools as psychologically healthy environments. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 206–221. [Google Scholar]
  10. Baş, N., & Altun, F. (2020). The role of school engagement, quality of school life and academic success in explain of future expectation in secondary school students. Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 24(1), 197-213. [Google Scholar]
  11. Blum, R. (2005). School connectedness: Improving the lives of students. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bono, G., & Froh, J. (2009). Gratitude in school: Benefit to students and schools. In M. Furlong, R. Gilman, & S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 77–88). New York, NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  13. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879–889. [Google Scholar]
  14. Chase, P. A., Hilliard, L. J., Geldhof, G. J., Warren, D. J. & Lerner, R. M. (2014). Academic achievement in the high school years: The changing role of school engagement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(6), 884-896. [Google Scholar]
  15. Coelho, C. C. de A., & Dell’Aglio, D. D. (2019). School climate and school satisfaction among high school adolescents. Psicologia: Teoria e Prática, 21(1), 265-281. [Google Scholar]
  16. Çubukçu, Z., & Gültekin, M. (2006). Social skills that need to be gained by primary school students. Bilig, 37, 155-174. [Google Scholar]
  17. Daily SM, Smith ML, Lilly CL, Davidov DM, Mann MJ, & Kristjansson AL. (2020). Using school climate to improve attendance and grades: understanding the importance of school satisfaction among middle and high school students. J Sch Health., 90, 683-693. [Google Scholar]
  18. Denizhan, R., Pınar, Ömer, Bozkurt, M., Tekay, S., Güneş Sanal, N., & Çıtıl, Y. (2023). The factors affecting children's commitment to school. Premium E-Journal of Social Science (Pejoss), 7(30), 475–489. [Google Scholar]
  19. Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7(3), 181-185. [Google Scholar]
  20. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective Well-Being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302. [Google Scholar]
  21. Dönmez, Ş. (2016). The examining school climate, school engagement and quality of school life perception in middle school. Masters’ thesis. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Türkiye. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ersoy, E. (2020). Relationship between academic support and school life satisfaction of secondary and high school students. Masters’ thesis. Inönü University, Türkiye [Google Scholar]
  23. Erzen, E., & Çikrıkci, Ö. (2018). The role of school attachment and parental social support in academic procrastination. Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 7(1), 17-27. [Google Scholar]
  24. Etor, C. R., Mbon, U. F., & Ekanem, E. E. (2013). Primary education as a foundation for qualitative higher education in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2), 155-164. [Google Scholar]
  25. Finn, J. D. (1993). School Engagement & Students at Risk. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs93/93470a.pdf [Google Scholar]
  26. Finn, J. D., & Voelkl, K. E. (1993). School characteristics related to student engagement. Journal of Negro Education, 62, 249-268. [Google Scholar]
  27. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris,  A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. [Google Scholar]
  28. Frisch, M. B. (2000). Improving mental and physical health care through quality of life therapy and assessment. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in quality of life: Theory and research (pp. 207-241). London: Kluwer. [Google Scholar]
  29. Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O’Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the positive experiences at school scale for elementary school children. Child Indicators Research, 6, 753–775. [Google Scholar]
  30. Gempp, R., & González-Carrasco M. (2021). Peer relatedness, school satisfaction, and life satisfaction in early adolescence: A non-recursive model. Front. Psychol. 12, 641714. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gómez-Baya, D., García-Moro, F.J., Muñoz-Silva, A., & Martín-Romero, N. (2021). School satisfaction and happiness in 10-year-old children from seven European countries. Children, 8, 370, 1-12. [Google Scholar]
  32. Gündoğan, S. (2022). The mediating role of school burnout in the relationship between school satisfaction and subjective well-being. Adıyaman University journal of Social Sciences, 15(42), 92-122. [Google Scholar]
  33. Horanicova, S., Husarova, D., Gecková, A.M., De Winter, A.F., & Reijneveld, S.A. (2022). School satisfaction and ıts associations with health and behavioural outcomes among 15-years old adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19, 11514. [Google Scholar]
  34. Huebner, E. S., & Gilman, R. (2006). Students who like and dislike school. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1(2), 139-150. [Google Scholar]
  35. Hui, E. K. P., ve Sunb, R. C. F. (2010). Chinese children’s perceived school satisfaction: The role of contextual and intrapersonal factors. Educational Psychology, 30(2), 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410903494452. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Jimerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. University of California Santa Barbara the California School Psychologist, 8(1), 7-27. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kaplancı, B. (2018). The exami̇nati̇on of the sense of responsibility of the primary school students in terms of school satisfaction and school attachment. Masters’ thesis. Sakarya University, Türkiye. [Google Scholar]
  38. Karababa, A. (2020). The Reciprocal Relationship between School Engagement and Self-Esteem among Turkish Early Adolescent: A Three-wave Cross-lagged Model. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 1-9. [Google Scholar]
  39. Kırbaç, M. (2019). Analysis of the relationships between teachers' classroom management styles and students' school engagement, school resistance and academic achievement. Doctoral Thesis. Inonu University. [Google Scholar]
  40. Kızılçaoğlu, A. (2006). Geographic Education in Elementary Schools. Lnternational Journal of Geography and Geography Education, 14, 81-106. [Google Scholar]
  41. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  42. Koçak, S., & Ay, M. H. (2020). The mediating role of school engagement on the relationship between high school students' perception of democratic school culture and their academic aspiration. YYU Journal of Education Faculty, 17(1) , 959-990. [Google Scholar]
  43. Kösem, M. A. (2019). Investigation of the secondary school students' positive experiences at school and expectations from school. Masters’ thesis. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Türkiye. [Google Scholar]
  44. Lee, J. S. (2014). The relationship between student engagement and academic performance: Is it a myth or reality? The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 177-185. [Google Scholar]
  45. Li, Y., & Lerner, R.M. (2011). Trajectories of school engagement during adolescence: implications for grades, depression, delinquency, and substance use. American Psychological Association, 47(1), 233-247. [Google Scholar]
  46. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137-155 [Google Scholar]
  47. Newmann, F., Wehlage, G. G., & Lamborn, S. D. (1992). The significance and sources of student engagement. F. Newmann (Ed.), In Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (ss. 11–39). New York: Teachers College Press. [Google Scholar]
  48. Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Education & Educational Research, 70(30), 323‐367. [Google Scholar]
  49. Özdemir, S, & Sezgin, F. (2011). Primary school students’ perceptions of principal and teacher support, perceived violence, and school satisfaction. Inonu University Faculty of Education, 12(2), 181-199. [Google Scholar]
  50. Özdemir, Y. (2015). School burnout in secondary school students: role of homework, school engagement and academic motivation. Adnan Menderes University Journal of Educaitonal Sciences 6(1), 27-35. [Google Scholar]
  51. Özdemir, Y., Hiğde, A. Y., & Sağkal, A. S. (2021). Developing the school happiness scale for primary school children (SHSPSC): Validity and reliability study. Milli Eğitim Dergisi, 50(231), 111-127. [Google Scholar]
  52. Pehlivan, B., & Özgenel, M. (2020). Examination of the relationship between school climate perceptions of students in different high schools and their attachment to school and academic success. TAY Journal, 4(2), 152-166. [Google Scholar]
  53. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press/Washington, DC, American Psychological Association. [Google Scholar]
  54. Randolph, J. J., Kangas, M., & Ruokamo, H. (2009). The preliminary development of the children's overall satisfaction with schooling scale. Child Indicators Research, 2(1), 79-93. [Google Scholar]
  55. Robinson, M. O. (2016). An investigation of behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement as predictors of the intent to drop out of school for eleventh and twelfth grade students. Doctoral Thesis. Regent University, USA. [Google Scholar]
  56. Sağlam, A., & İkiz, F. E. (2017). The relation between tendency to violence and the level ofschool engagement. Elementary Education Online, 16(3), 1235-1246. [Google Scholar]
  57. Savi, F. (2011). School attachment scale for children and adolescents: The study of validity and reliability. Elementary Education Online, 10(1), 80-90. [Google Scholar]
  58. Şahin, A., & Atbaşı, Z. (2020). Examining the role of the teacher in creating a positive school climate. Ahi Evran University Institute of Social Sciences Journal, 6(3), 672-689. [Google Scholar]
  59. Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş: Temel ilkeler ve Lisrel uygulamaları. Ankara: Ekinoks Yayınları. [Google Scholar]
  60. Şimşek, Ü., Araz, H., & Yıldız, E. (2016). The effect of the educational game method on academic achievement and motivation towards science learning in teaching of circulatory system. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 13(36), 20-32. [Google Scholar]
  61. Şişman, M. ve Turan, S. (2004). Eğitim ve okul yönetimi. Özden Y. (Ed.), In Eğitim ve okul yöneticiliği el kitabı (ss. 99-159). Ankara: Pegem A. [Google Scholar]
  62. Telef, B. B. (2014). Turkish adaptation study of overall school satisfaction scale for children. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 10(2), 478-490. [Google Scholar]
  63. Telef, B. B. (2016). Validity and reliability study of positive experiences at school scale. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 2475-2487. [Google Scholar]
  64. Telef, B. B. (2021). The relation between happiness, school satisfaction, and positive experiences at school in secondary school students. Education and Science, 46(205), 359-37. [Google Scholar]
  65. Tian, L., Chen, H., & Huebner, E. S. (2014). The longitudinal relationships between basic psychological needs satisfaction at school and school-related subjective well-being in adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 119(1), 353-372. [Google Scholar]
  66. Tuğrul, B. (2017). The world agree  on the power of the “Play”: It  is now time to use this power for the benefit of children: Come on Türkiye... Journal of Early Childhood Studies, 1(2), 259-266. [Google Scholar]
  67. UNICEF (n.d.). Primary school. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/education/primary-education#:~:text=Primary%20education%20forms%20the%20bedrock,and%20breaks%20cycles%20of%20poverty. [Google Scholar]
  68. Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). School satisfaction of elementary school children: The role of performance, peer relations, ethnicity and gender. Social Indicators Research, 59(2), 203-228. [Google Scholar]
  69. Wang, M.T. ve Fredricks, J.A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85(2), 722-737. [Google Scholar]
  70. Wei, L. T. (2003). Organizational climate and effectiveness in junior-middle school in P. R. China. Masters’ thesis. University of Regina, China. [Google Scholar]
  71. Wilkins, B., Boman, P. ve Mergler, A. (2015). Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children. Cogent Education, 2(1), 1-11. [Google Scholar]
  72. Wolohan, M. I. (2009). The relationship between high school student engagement and school outcomes a school level analysis. Masters’ thesis. California Davis University, California. [Google Scholar]
  73. Yam, F. C. ve Kumcağız, H. (2020). The relationship between secondary school students' school satisfaction and life satisfaction: Examining the mediating role of hope. Manas Journal of Social Studies, 9(4), 2113-2130. [Google Scholar]
  74. Yılmaz, F. (2007). Teachers’ opinions about the effectiveness of science course to have students acquire scientific attitude and behavior in elementary school. Elementary Education Online, 6(1), 113-126. [Google Scholar]