International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2023, Vol. 18(3) 223-251

Transformation of Knowledge into Economic Value in Higher Education and Global Competitiveness: A Panel Causality Analysis on OECD Countries

Kadir Sain & Kurtuluş Bozkurt

pp. 223 - 251   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2023.600.11   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2305-17-0008

Published online: September 30, 2023  |   Number of Views: 164  |  Number of Download: 248


Abstract

Entrepreneurial and innovative higher education institutions of the 21st century have become the driving forces of social development, economic growth and global competitiveness by improving human capital through the educational and instructional services they offer, producing qualified scientific information through the scientific research they conduct and by fulfilling an important responsibility in the solution of social problems. In the current study, the effect of higher education on global competition in the context of the transformation of knowledge into economic value in OECD countries was analyzed with the Granger Panel Causality Test. In the application part, a panel data set was created with the data collected from 25 OECD countries for which data were available for the period 2006-2017. The Global Competitiveness Index variable was taken as the basis to reveal the global competitiveness of the countries included in the analysis. In order to reveal the status of their higher education, the gross schooling rate in higher education, the employment rate of the population with higher education, public expenditures on higher education, the quality of the education system, the quality of scientific research institutions, the performance of scientific publications, the R&D expenditures made by higher education and the university-industry cooperation variables were taken as the basis. As a result of the application, it was determined that each variable representing higher education has a bilateral causality relationship in the short term with the Global Competitiveness Index representing global competition. 

Keywords: Higher education, global competition, knowledge, economic value, OECD, panel causality test


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sain, K. & Bozkurt, K. (2023). Transformation of Knowledge into Economic Value in Higher Education and Global Competitiveness: A Panel Causality Analysis on OECD Countries . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(3), 223-251. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2023.600.11

Harvard
Sain, K. and Bozkurt, K. (2023). Transformation of Knowledge into Economic Value in Higher Education and Global Competitiveness: A Panel Causality Analysis on OECD Countries . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(3), pp. 223-251.

Chicago 16th edition
Sain, Kadir and Kurtulus Bozkurt (2023). "Transformation of Knowledge into Economic Value in Higher Education and Global Competitiveness: A Panel Causality Analysis on OECD Countries ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 18 (3):223-251. doi:10.29329/epasr.2023.600.11.

References
  1. Aiginger, K. (1998). A framework for evaluating the dynamic competitiveness of countries. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 9(2), 159-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0954-349X(97)00026-X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Aktan, C. C. (2007). Yüksek öğretimde değişim: global trendler ve yeni paradigmalar. In C. C. Aktan (Ed.), Değişim çağında yüksek öğretim: global trendler – paradigmal yönelimler  (pp. 11-64). Yaşar University. [Google Scholar]
  3. Alkibay, S., Orhaner, E., Korkmaz, S., & Ermeç Sertoğlu, A. (2012). Üniversite sanayi işbirliği çerçevesinde teknoparklar, yönetimsel sorunları ve çözüm önerileri. Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 26(2), 65-90. [Google Scholar]
  4. Altay, A., & Pazarlıoğlu, M. V. (2007). Uluslararası rekabet gücünde beşeri sermaye: ekonometrik yaklaşım. Selçuk Üniversitesi Karaman İ. İ. B. F. Dergisi, 12, 96-108. [Google Scholar]
  5. Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L.,  & Rumbley, L. E. (2010). Trend in global higher education: tracking an academic revolution. Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004406155 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Antalyalı, Ö. L. (2007). Tarihsel süreç içerisinde üniversite misyonlarının oluşumu. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6, 25-40. [Google Scholar]
  7. Aybarç Bursalıoğlu, S. (2012). Türkiye ve Avrupa birliği ülkelerinde yükseköğretim kamu harcamalarının karşılaştırmalı etkinlik analizi [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Manisa Celal Bayar University. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ayten, A. M., & Göver, İ. H. (2020). Değişen yükseköğretim sistemini sosyokültürel ve mekansal bağlamlarda yeniden düşünmek. Yükseköğretim Dergisi, 10(2), 141-152. https://doi.org/10.2399/yod.19.512935 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Balmumcu, Ö., & Bozkurt, K. (2020). Gelişmekte olan ülkelerde ekonomik büyüme ve cari işlemler dengesi üzerine bir panel veri analizi. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2), 292-307. https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.770074 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Bannier, B. J. (2016). Global trends in transnational education. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 6(1), 80-84. http://www.ijiet.org/vol6/663-DL0006.pdf [Google Scholar]
  11. Bauk, S., & Jusufranic, J. (2014). Competitiveness in higher education in terms of the level of students' satisfaction with e-learning in blended environment.  Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 10(1), 25-42. [Google Scholar]
  12. Berber, Ş. (2003). Bilgi çağında eğitim. Türkiye Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7(2), 39-50. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bernasconi, A., & Celis, S. (2017). Higher education reforms: Latin America in comparative perspective. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 25(67), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.25.3240 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Blomquist, J., & Westerlund, J. (2013). Testing slope homogeneity in large panels with serial correlation.  Economics Letters, 121(3), 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2013.09.012 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Bloom, D. E., Canning, D.,  Chan, K., & Luca, D. L. (2014). Higher education and economic growth in Africa. International Journal of African Higher Education, 1(1), 23-57. https://doi.org/10.6017/ijahe.v1i1.5643 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Bozkurt, K. (2012). Dışsal teknolojik şokların gelişmekte olan ülkelerin büyüme sürecine etkileri [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bozkurt, K., & Balmumcu, Ö. (2018). Beşeri sermaye ve ekonomik büyüme: gelişmekte olan ülkeler için bir panel veri analiz. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, Prof. Dr. Harun Terzi Özel Sayısı, 391-405. https://doi.org/10.18092/ulikidince.446072 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Bozkurt, K., Armurçuoğlu Tekin, H., & Can Ergün, Z. (2021). An investigation of demand and exchange rate shocks in the tourism sector. Applied Economic Analysis, 29(86), 171-188. [Google Scholar]
  19. Breusch, T. S., & Pagan, A. R. (1980). The lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification tests in econometrics. The Review of Economic Studies, 47(1), 239-253. https://doi.org/10.2307/2297111 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Burnett, S. A., & Huisman, J. (2010). Universities’ responses to globalization: The influence of organizational culture. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(2), 117-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315309350717 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Czajkowski, Z. (2014). Human capital and innovation determinants of competitiveness. In M. A. Weresa (Ed.), Innovation, human capital and trade competitiveness: How are they connected and why do they matter? (pp. 105-157). Springer. [Google Scholar]
  22. Dumitrescu, E. I., & Hurlin, C. (2012). Testing for granger non-causality in heterogeneous panels. Economic Modelling, 29(4), 1450-1460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.02.014 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Erdem, A. R. (2016). Üniversite anlayışındaki değişim: birinci nesil üniversiteden dördüncü nesil üniversiteye. TYB Akademi Dil Edebiyat ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 16(16), 21-52. [Google Scholar]
  24. Etzkowitz, H. (2008). The triple helix: industry-university-government innovation in action. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  25. Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Anatomy of the entrepreneurial university. Social Science Information, 52(3), 486-511. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018413485 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: From national systems and mode 2 to a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy, 29(2), 109-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00055-4 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Fagerberg, J. (1988). International competitiveness. The Economic Journal, 98, 355-374. https://doi.org/10.2307/2233372 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Garelli, S. (2007). IMD world competitiveness yearbook 2005. IMD-International Institute for Management Development. [Google Scholar]
  29. Göktaş, P., Pekmezci, A., & Bozkurt, K. (2019). Ekonometrik serilerde uzun dönem eşbütünleşme ve kısa dönem nedensellik-makroekonomik verilerle eviews ve stata uygulamaları. Gazi Kitabevi. [Google Scholar]
  30. Grant, E. (1997). When did modern science begin? American Scholar, 66(1), 105-114. [Google Scholar]
  31. Günay, D. (2007). Yirmibirinci yüzyılda üniversite. In C. C. Aktan (Ed.), Değişim çağında yüksek öğretim: global trendler – paradigmal yönelimler (pp. 77-88). Yaşar University. [Google Scholar]
  32. Horn, M. B., & Dunagan, A. (2018). Innovation and quality assurance in higher education. Christensen Institute. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED586374.pdf [Google Scholar]
  33. İlkay, S. Ç. (2019). Beşeri sermaye ile uluslararası rekabet gücü arasındaki ilişki: Türkiye ve seçilmiş diğer G20 ülkeleri üzerine bir analiz [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kayseri Erciyes University. [Google Scholar]
  34. Jantadej, K. (2021). English as an international language teaching and perceptions: a case study of Thai tertiary English language teachers. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(6), 93-114. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Kara, K. (2019). Ulusal yenilik, ulusal rekabet ve ulusal yükseköğretim başarı ilişkisi: panel veri analizi [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kiper, M. (2010). Dünyada ve Türkiye’de üniversite-sanayi işbirliği ve bu kapsamda üniversite-sanayi ortak araştırma merkezleri programı (ÜSAMP). Türkiye Teknoloji Geliştirme Vakfı. https://www.ttgv.org.tr/tur/images/publications/6005bd04eec7d.pdf [Google Scholar]
  37. Kireçci, M. A., Bacanlı, H., Erişen, Y., Karadağ, E., Çelikgöz, N., Dombaycı, M. A., Toprak, M., & Şahin, M. (2016). Türkiye’de yükseköğretimin uluslararasılaşması: Bir endeks oluşturma çalışması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 41(187), 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.15390/EB.2016.6223 [Google Scholar]
  38. Krstić, M., Filipe, J. A., & Chavaglia, J. (2020). Higher education as a determinant of the competitiveness and sustainable development of an economy. Sustainability, 12(16), 6607. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166607 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Kwiek, M. (2001). Globalization and higher education. Higher Education in Europe, 16(1), 27-39. [Google Scholar]
  40. McBurnie, G. (2002). Globalization, GATS, and transnational education. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 2(1), 169-190. [Google Scholar]
  41. McLendon, M. K., & Ness, E. C. (2003). The politics of state higher education governance reform. Peabody Journal of Education, 78(4), 66-88. [Google Scholar]
  42. OECD (1996). Globalisation and competitiveness: Relevant indicators. OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/18151965 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Okumuş, M. Y. (2021). Yükseköğretimde değişim ve dönüşüm beklentileri öneriler. Eğitim-Bir-Sen Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi. [Google Scholar]
  44. Perkin, H. (2007). History of universities. In James J.F. Forest & Philip G. Altbach (Eds.), International handbook of higher education (pp. 159-205). Springer. [Google Scholar]
  45. Pesaran, M. H. (2007). A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 22(2), 265-312. https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.951 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Piyadeoğlu, C. (2018). Nizamiye medreselerinin kuruluşu ve önemi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Selçuklu Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8, 124-135. [Google Scholar]
  47. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of notions. Harvard Business Review, No. 90211, 71-91. [Google Scholar]
  48. Ranga, M., & Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Triple helix systems: An analytical framework for innovation policy and practice in the knowledge society. Industry and Higher Education, 27(4), 237-262. https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2013.0165 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  49. Reda, M. (2012). Enhancing Egypt’s competitiveness: Education, innovation and labor. Egyptian Center for Economic Studies. [Google Scholar]
  50. Rukancı, F., & Anameriç, H. (2004). Ortaçağda ilk üniversiteler: studium generale. Felsefe Dünyası, 39, 170-186. [Google Scholar]
  51. Sabır Taştan, N. (2020). Yükseköğretimde akademik performansın etkinlik temelinde değerlendirilmesinde bir model önerisi [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Ondokuz Mayıs University. [Google Scholar]
  52. Sahlberg, P. (2006). Education reform for raising economic competitiveness. Journal of Educational Change, 7(4), 259-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-005-4884-6 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Saklı, A. R., & Akdoğar Akbulut, H. T. (2017). Dünyada ve Türkiye’de üniversitelerin tarihi gelişimi. In A. R. Saklı (Ed.), Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Üniversitesi öğrenci ve akademisyenleri ile Rize halkının karşılıklı algı ve beklentileri (pp. 9-49). Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University. [Google Scholar]
  54. Sart, G. (2018). OECD ülkelerinde küresel rekabet gücü ve yüksek öğrenimin rolü. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  55. Selvitopu, A., & Aydın, A. (2018). Türk yükseköğretiminde uluslararasılaşma stratejileri: süreç yaklaşımı çerçevesinde nitel bir inceleme. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 33(4), 803-823. doi: 10.16986/HUJE.2018038522 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Storberg-Walker, J., & Torraco, R. (2004). Change and higher education: a multidisciplinary approach. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492430.pdf [Google Scholar]
  57. Şahin, M., & Alkan, R. M. (2016). Yükseköğretimde değişim dönüşüm süreci ve üniversitelerin genişleyen rolleri. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2), 297-307. [Google Scholar]
  58. Şimşek, H., & Adıgüzel, T. (2012). Yükseköğretimde yeni bir üniversite paradigmasına doğru. Eğitim ve Bilim, 37(166), 250-261. [Google Scholar]
  59. Tekeli, İ. (2003). Dünya’da ve Türkiye’de üniversite üzerinde konuşmanın değişik yolları. Toplum ve Bilim Dergisi, 97, 123-143. [Google Scholar]
  60. Tijanic, L., & Obadic, A. (2015). Can we boost the competitiveness of the European Union through reducing regional ınequalities in human capital? Engineering Economics, 26(3), 295-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ee.26.3.8029 [Google Scholar]
  61. Timur, T. (2000). Toplumsal değişme ve üniversiteler. İmge Kitapevi. [Google Scholar]
  62. Trow, M. (2007). Reflections on the transition from elite to mass to universal access: Forms and phases of higher education in modern societies since WWII. In Forest, J.J.F., & Altbach, P.G. (Eds.), International handbook of higher education (pp. 243-280). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4012-2_13 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  63. Ulusoy, G. (2007). Disiplinlerarası araştırma ve eğitim. In C. C. Aktan (Ed.), Değişim çağında yüksek öğretim: global trendler – paradigmal yönelimler (pp. 389-397). Yaşar University. [Google Scholar]
  64. WEF (2018). The global competitiveness report 2018. Word Economic Forum. https://www3.weforum.org/docs/GCR2018/05FullReport/TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2018.pdf [Google Scholar]
  65. Weresa, M. A. (2017). Innovation, human capital and competitiveness in Central and Eastern Europe with regard to the challenges of a digital economy. https://www.etui.org/sites/default/files/Chapter%203_5.pdf [Google Scholar]
  66. Wissema, J. G. (2009). Towards the third generation university: Managing the university in transition. Edward Elgar Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  67. Wyszkowska-Kuna, J. (2017). The role of intermediate demand and technology for international competitiveness of the KIBS sector: Evidence from European Union Countries. The Journal of International Trade&Economic Development, 26(7), 777-800. [Google Scholar]
  68. Yaman, A. (2021). Good to have an ambitious ranking policy, but how about the realities? analysing the ranking goals for an emerging higher education hub. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(4), 178-197. https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2021.383.10 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  69. Yaras, Z., & Kanatli-Ozturk, F. (2022). Society 5.0 in human technology integration: digital transformation in educational organizations. International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), 458-474. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.26 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  70. Zhang, X. (2007). Re-examining the mission of the university in mass higher education. Frontiers of Education in China, 2(3), 378-393. [Google Scholar]