International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(4) 164-181

Factors Affecting General and Online Academic Achievement of University Students: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Scores

Barış Çeti̇n

pp. 164 - 181   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2207-27-0002.R1

Published online: December 05, 2022  |   Number of Views: 80  |  Number of Download: 223


This study aims to determine whether university students' levels of online self-regulated learning, online technologies self-efficacy, and motivated strategies for learning predict their general academic achievement and online academic achievement. In this study, the scanning design and the prediction research design were used. The participants of this research consisted of 55 undergraduate students studying in different departments of a university in Western Canada. The data were collected with “Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Scale (OTSES)” developed by Barnard et al., (2009); “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)” developed by Pintrich et al., (1991); “Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ)” developed by Miltiadou and Yu (2000); and “demographic form”. This study did not determine a significant relationship between university students' total scores of OSLQ, OTSES, MSLQ, and their GPAs. Instead, the study found that university students' total scores of OSLQ, OTSES, MSLQ did not significantly predict their GPAs and online GPAs.

Keywords: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, Motivation, GPA, Online Academic Achievement, University Students

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ceti̇n, B. (2022). Factors Affecting General and Online Academic Achievement of University Students: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Scores . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), 164-181. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.8

Ceti̇n, B. (2022). Factors Affecting General and Online Academic Achievement of University Students: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Scores . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), pp. 164-181.

Chicago 16th edition
Ceti̇n, Baris (2022). "Factors Affecting General and Online Academic Achievement of University Students: Online Self-Regulated Learning, Online Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Scores ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (4):164-181. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.478.8.

  1. Artino, A. R. (2008). Motivational beliefs and perceptions of instructional quality: Predicting satisfaction with online training. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(3), [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological 84 (2), 191-215. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W.H. Freeman. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bates, A. W. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education (2nd ed.). Routledge/Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2004). A path analytic study of the determinants of college students’ motivation to use online learning technologies. In T. M. Egan & M. L. Morris (Eds.), Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development 2004 Annual Meeting (pp. 1078-1085). [Google Scholar]
  6. Barnard, L., Lan, W. Y., To, Y. M., Paton, V. O., & Lai, S. L. (2009). Measuring self regulation in online and blended learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(2), 1-6. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Brophy, J. (2010). Motivating students to learn (3rd ed.). Routledge/Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bruso, J.L., & Stefaniak, J.E. (2016). The use of self-regulated learning measure questionnaires as a predictor of academic success. TechTrends, 60, 577–584. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Basila, C.L (2016). Academic performance in college online courses: The role of self-regulated learning, motivation and academic self-efficacy (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University (Publication No. 10103825) [Doctoral dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  10. Broadbent, J. (2017). Comparing online and blended learner’s self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance. The Internet and Higher Education, 33, 24–32.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. The Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Bothma, F., & Monteith, J. L. d. (2004). Self-regulated learning as a prerequisite for successful distance learning. South African Journal of Education, 24(2), 141–147. [Google Scholar]
  13. Boekaerts, M., Maes, S., & Karoly, P. (2005). Self-Regulation Across Domains of Applied Psychology: Is there an Emerging Consensus?. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(2), 149–154. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7, 161–186. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Boekaerts, M. (1999). Motivated learning: Studying student * situation transactional units. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14(1), 41–55. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Cho, M.H., & Yoo, J.S. (2017). Exploring online students’ self-regulated learning with self-reported surveys and log files: a data mining approach. Interactive Learning Environments, 25 (8), 970–982. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Cho, M., & Heron, M. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning: The role of motivation, emotion, and use of learning strategies in students’ learning experiences in a self- paced online mathematics course. Distance Education, 36(1), 80-99. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cui, G., Lockee, B., & Meng, C. (2013). Building modern online social presence: A review of social presence theory and its instructional design implications for future trends. Education and Information Technologies, 18(4), 661–685. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. DeTure, M.(2003).Investigating the predictive value of cognitive style and online technologies self-efficacy in predicting student success in online distance Education courses (Publication No. 3103562) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  21. Dent, A. L., & Koenka, A. C. (2016). The Relation Between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement Across Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 425–474. [Google Scholar]
  22. Dhungana, H.P. (2015). Satisfaction of technology, online learning, and intent to persist in older adult learners (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University (Publication No. 3706773) [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  23. Dikbas Torun, E. (2020). Online distance learning in higher education: E-learning readiness as a predictor of academic achievement. Open Praxis, vol. 12 issue 2, 191–208. [Google Scholar]
  24. Eryaman, M. Y., Kocer, O., Kana, F. & Yagmus Sahin, E. (2013). A Transcendental Phenomenological Study of Teachers' Self-efficacy Experiences. CADMO: Giornale italiano di Pedagogia sperimentale. 11(2) 9-33 [Google Scholar]
  25. Greene, J. A., Yu, S. B., & Copeland, D. Z. (2014). Measuring critical components of digital literacy and their relationships with learning. Computers & Education, 76, 55-69. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. Mc Graw Hill Higher Education. [Google Scholar]
  27. Harism, L. (2017). Learning Theory and Online Technologies ( 2nd. ed.). Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hattie, J. A. C., & Donoghue, G. M. (2016). Learning strategies: A synthesis and conceptual model. Science of Learning, 1, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Hector McGhee, R.M. (2010). Asynchronous interaction, online echnoltogies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of academic achievement in online class (Publication No. 3453755) [Doctoral dissertation, Southern University and A & M College]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  30. Hartnett, M. (2016). Motivation in Online Education. Springer. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Hull, C.L. (1943). Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory. Appleton-Centory-Crofits. [Google Scholar]
  32. Hartnett, M. (2019). Motivation in distance education. In M. G. Moore & Diehl, W. C. (Eds.), Handbook of Distance Education (4th ed., pp. 145 – 157). Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  33. Holcomb, L. B., Brown, S. W., & Lima, C. O. (2010). Assessing the impact of a performance-based assessment on educators' technology self-efficacy measures. International Journal of Instructional Media, 37(2), 121-132. [Google Scholar]
  34. Jonassen, D., Davidson, M., Collins, M., Campbell, J., & Haag, B. B. (1995). Constructivism and computer-mediated communication in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 9(2), 7–26. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Keengwe, J., & Kidd, T. T. (2010). Towards best practices in online learning and teaching in higher education. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 533-541. [Google Scholar]
  36. Komarraju, M., & Nadler, D. (2013). Self-efficacy and academic achievement: Why do implicit beliefs, goals, and effort regulation matter? Learning and Individual Differences, 25, 67–72. [Google Scholar]
  37. Miltiadou, M., & Yu, C. H. (2000). Validation of the online technologies self-efficacy scale (OTSES).(pp.1-10) [Google Scholar]
  38. Marsteller, R.B.  (2017). Making online learning personal: Evolution, evidentiary reasoning, and self-regulation in an online curriculum (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University (Publication No. 10278376) [Doctoral dissertation, Lehigh University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  39. Myers, D. G. (2010). Psychology (Ninth ed.). Worth publishers.  [Google Scholar]
  40. Mertler, C.A. ve Reinhart, R.V. (2017). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods practical application and interpretation. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. [Google Scholar]
  41. Pajares, F., & Graham, L. (1999). Self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and mathematics performance of entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 124–139. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Pintrich, P. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33–40. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 544–555. [Google Scholar]
  44. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. [Google Scholar]
  45. Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (2nd ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  46. Puzziferro, M. (2008). Online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of final grade and satisfaction in college-level online courses. The American Journal of Distance Education, 2 (22), 72–89. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  47. Schunk, D.H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26, 207-231. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  48. Schunk, D. H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 631–650). Academic Press.  [Google Scholar]
  49. Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1998).  Conclusions and future directions. In D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (Eds.). Self- regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  50. Shen, D., Cho, M.-H., Tsai, C.-L., & Marra, R. (2013.). Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-efficacy and learning satisfaction. Internet and Higher Education 19, 10–17. [Google Scholar]
  51. Schwam, D., Greenberg, D. & Li, H. (2021). Individual Differences in Self-regulated Learning of College Students Enrolled in Online College Courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 35:2, 133-151, [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  52. Schultz, R.B. & DeMers, M.N. (2020) Transitioning from emergency remote learning to deep online learning experiences in geography education. Journal of Geography, 119:5, 142-146, [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Schunk, D. H., & Usher, E. L. (2012). Social cognitive theory and motivation. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 13–27). Oxford University Press.  [Google Scholar]
  54. Schunk, D. H. (1984). Enhancing self-efficacy and achievement through rewards and goals: Motivational and informational effects. Journal of educational research. 78 (1), 29-34 [Google Scholar]
  55. Theriault, N.R. (2020). A phenomenological study of meaningful online learning for college students (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University (Publication No. 27994522) [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. [Google Scholar]
  56. Tsai, C.L., Cho, M.H., Marra, R. & Shen, D. (2020) The Self- Efficacy Questionnaire for Online Learning (SeQoL). Distance Education, 41:4, 472-489, [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Theobald, M. (2021). Self-regulated learning training programs enhance university students’ academic performance, self-regulated learning strategies, and motivation: A meta-analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology 66, 101976 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  58. Torkzadeh, G., & Van Dyke, T. P. (2002). Effects of training on Internet self-efficacy and computer user attitudes. Computers and Human Behavior, 18, 479-494. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Usher, E. L., & Schunk, D. H. (2018). Social cognitive theoretical perspective of self-regulation. In D. H. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed., pp. 19–35). Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  60. Uzun, A.M. Ünal, E. & Yamac, A. (2013). Service teachers’ academic achievements in online distance education: The roles of online self-regulation and attitudes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 14 (2), 131-140. [Google Scholar]
  61. Van den Boom, G., Paas, F., & van Merrie ̈nboer, J.J.G. (2007). Effects of elicited reflections combined with tutor or peer feedback on self-regulated learning and learning outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 532–548. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Wijekumar, K., Ferguson, L., & Wagoner, D. (2006). Problem with assessment validity and reliability in web-based distance learning environments and solutions. Journal of Educational Multimedia & Hypermedia, 15, 199–215. [Google Scholar]
  63. Winne, P.H. & Hadwin, A.F. (2012). The weave of motivation and self-regulated learning. In D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning theory research, and applications. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  64. White, M.C. & DiBenedetto, M.K. (2018). Self-Regulation: An integral part of standarts-Based education. In D. H. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed., pp. 19–35). Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  65. Wighting, M. J., Liu, J., & Rovai, A. P. (2008). Distinguishing sense of community and motivation characteristics between online and traditional college students. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 9(3), 285–295. [Google Scholar]
  66. Wang, C., Shannon, D. M., & Ross, M. E. (2013). Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 302-323. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  67. Xie, K. (2013). What do the numbers say? The influence of motivation and peer feedback on students’ behavior in online discussions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(2), 288-301. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  68. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329–339. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  69. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3–17. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  70. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). Academic Press.  [Google Scholar]
  71. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory in to Practice, 41(2), 64-70. [Google Scholar]
  72. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility belief. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 397–417. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  73. Zimmerman BJ (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal 45(1): 166–83. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  74. Zimmerman, B. J. (2015). Self-regulated learning: Theories, measures, and outcomes. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 21, 541–546 2nd ed. [Google Scholar]
  75. Zimmerman, W. A., & Kulikowich, J. M. (2016). Online learning self-efficacy in students with and without online learning experience. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(3), 180-191. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  76. Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2011). Self-Regulated Learning and Performance. Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  77. Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845-862. [Google Scholar]
  78. Zheng, C., Liang, I,C. , Li, M., & Tsai, C.C. (2018).The relationship between english language learners’ motivation and online self-regulation: A structural equation modelling approach. System 76, 144-157. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]