International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(4) 87-111

Covid-19-Prompted Emergency Distance English Language Education from EFL Students’ Perspective: A Scoping Review on Challenges and Responses

Tuçe Karataş & Hülya Tuncer

pp. 87 - 111   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2022.478.4   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2209-09-0008.R1

Published online: December 05, 2022  |   Number of Views: 59  |  Number of Download: 217


Abstract

The profound and permanent impact of the Covid-19 pandemic caused a global closure of universities and schools by transforming physical classrooms into online/distance settings. Such a sudden shift resulted in uncertainty in the educational context. During the pandemic, the only way to sustain education was to benefit from distance education, which is defined as Emergency Distance Education. Specifically focusing on English language education in these emergency circumstances, such a distance education might be defined as Emergency Distance English Language Education (EDELE). In such a rush, both challenges and opportunities have been experienced in EDELE. Therefore, recent studies focus on how to respond to those challenges to improve the conditions of EDELE. Thus, this scoping review study aims to first identify (a) challenges experienced during EDELE, and then (b) responses for those challenges during EDELE from the perspectives of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. Via NVivo 11 Plus, the scoped studies focusing on EFL students were inductively and thematically analysed. The results revealed the challenges during EDELE centred around five main actions: changed, caused, revealed, increased, and decreased. Additionally, thematic analyses of the responses were organized around the implementations or recommendations by three stakeholders: teachers, students, and institutions. The current study contributes to EFL settings in improving distance education circumstances.

Keywords: Emergency Distance English Language Education (EDELE), Scoping Review, Covid-19, NVivo


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Karatas, T. & Tuncer, H. (2022). Covid-19-Prompted Emergency Distance English Language Education from EFL Students’ Perspective: A Scoping Review on Challenges and Responses . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), 87-111. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.4

Harvard
Karatas, T. and Tuncer, H. (2022). Covid-19-Prompted Emergency Distance English Language Education from EFL Students’ Perspective: A Scoping Review on Challenges and Responses . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), pp. 87-111.

Chicago 16th edition
Karatas, Tuce and Hulya Tuncer (2022). "Covid-19-Prompted Emergency Distance English Language Education from EFL Students’ Perspective: A Scoping Review on Challenges and Responses ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (4):87-111. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.478.4.

References
  1. Ağçam, R., Akbana, Y. E., & Rathert, S. (2021). Dealing with emergency remote teaching: The case of pre-service English language teachers in Turkey. Journal of Language and Education, 7(4), 16-29.  https://doi.org/10.17323/ jle.2021.11995 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Al Lily, A. E., Ismail, A. F., Abunasser, F. M., & Alqahtani, R. H. A. (2020). Distance education as a response to pandemics: Coronavirus and Arab culture. Technology in Society, 63, 101317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101317 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Alzamil, A. (2021). Teaching English speaking online versus face-to-face: Saudi students’ experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 12(1), 19-27.  http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3826486 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amin, F. M., & Sundari, H. (2020). EFL students’ preferences on digital platforms during emergency remote teaching: Video conference, LMS, or Messenger application?. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(2), 362-378. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i2.16929 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Andrew, A., Cattan, S., Costa-Dias, M., Farquharson, C., Kraftman, L., Krutikova, S., Phimister, A., & Sevilla, A. (2020). Learning during the lockdown: Real-time data on children’s experiences during home learning. IFS Briefing Note BN288. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. https://www.ifs.org.uk/uploads/Edited_FinalBN288%20Learning%20during%20the%20lockdown.pdf [Google Scholar]
  6. Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Bailey, D., Almusharraf, N., & Hatcher, R. (2021). Finding satisfaction: Intrinsic motivation for synchronous and asynchronous communication in the online language learning context. Education and Information Technologies, 26(3), 2563-2583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10369-z [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Bali, S., & Liu, M.C. (2018). Students’ perceptions toward online learning and face-to-face learning courses. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1108(1), 012094. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1108/1/012094 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Bernard, R.M., Abrami, P.C., Borokhovski, E., Wade, C.A., Tamim, R.M., Surkes, M.A. & Bethel, E.C. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243-1289. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0034654309333844 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Berns, A., Isla-Montes, J.-L., Palomo-Duarte, M., & Dodero, J.-M. (2016). Motivation, students’ needs and learning outcomes: A hybrid game-based app for enhanced language learning. Springer Plus, 5(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2971-1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Bond, M. (2021). Schools and emergency remote education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A living rapid systematic review. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 191-247. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4425683 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Bozavli, E. (2021). Is foreign language teaching possible without school? Distance learning experiences of foreign language students at Ataturk University during the COVID-19 pandemic. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 12 (1), 3-18.  https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no1.1 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., Lambert, S., Al-Freih, M., Pete, J., Olcott, Jr., D., Rodes, V., Aranciaga, I., Bali, M., Alvarez, A. J., Roberts, J., Pazurek, A., Raffaghelli, J. E., Panagiotou, N., de Coëtlogon, P., Shahadu, S., Brown, M., Asino, T. I., Tumwesige, J., Ramírez Reyes, T., Barrios Ipenza, E., Ossiannilsson, E., Bond, M., Belhamel, K., Irvine, V., Sharma, R. C., Adam, T., Janssen, B., Sklyarova, T., Olcott, N., Ambrosino, A., Lazou, C., Mocquet, B., Mano, M., & Paskevicius, M. (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis.  Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1-126. Retrieved from http://www.asianjde.com/ojs/index.php/AsianJDE/article/view/462 [Google Scholar]
  14. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.  [Google Scholar]
  15. Burns, A., & Siegel, J. (2018). Teaching the four language skills: Themes and issues. In A. Burns, & J. Siegel (Eds.), International perspectives on teaching the four skills in ELT: Listening, speaking, reading, writing (pp. 1-17). Palgrave Macmillan, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63444-9_1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Cahapay, M. B., & Labrador, M. G. P. (2021). Barriers and enablers of emergency remote education amid Covid-19 pandemic: Perspectives of English language teachers. International Journal of Educational Studies, 4(4), 159-164. https://doi.org/10.53935/2641-533x.v4i4.168 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Coldwell-Neilson, J. (2022). Decoding digital literacy. https://decodingdigitalliteracy.org/ [Google Scholar]
  18. Dindar, M., Çelik, I. & Muukkonen, H. (2022). #WedontWantDistanceEducation: A thematic analysis of higher education students’ social media posts about online education during Covid-19 pandemic. Technology Knowledge and Learning, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-022-09621-x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Fewkes, A. M., & McCabe, M. (2012). Facebook: Learning tool or distraction?. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 28(3), 92-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2012.10784686 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Ghounane, N. (2020). Moodle or social networks: What alternative refuge is appropriate to Algerian EFL students to learn during Covid-19 pandemic.  Arab World English Journal, 11(3), 21-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no3.2 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gopal, R., Singh, V. & Aggarwal, A. (2021). Impact of online classes on the satisfaction and performance of students during the pandemic period of COVID 19. Education and Information Technologies, 26 (6), 6923–6947. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10523-1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Halverson, A. (2018). 21st century skills and the” 4Cs” in the English language classroom. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1794/23598 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hamdan, K. M., Al-Bashaireh, A. M., Zahran, Z., Al-Daghestani, A., Samira, A. H., & Shaheen, A. M. (2021). University students' interaction, Internet self-efficacy, self-regulation and satisfaction with online education during pandemic crises of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). International Journal of Educational Management, 35(3), 713-725. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-11-2020-0513 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Hazaea, A. N., Bin-Hady, W. R. A., & Toujani, M. M. (2021). Emergency remote English language teaching in the Arab league countries: Challenges and remedies. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 22(1), 207-229. http://www.callej.org/journal/22-1/Hazaea-BinHady-Toujani2021.pdf [Google Scholar]
  25. Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning  [Google Scholar]
  26. Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Pergamon. [Google Scholar]
  27. Huang, M., Shi, Y., & Yang, X.  (2020). Emergency remote teaching of English as a foreign language during COVID-19: Perspectives from a university in China. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, (15), 400–418. https://doi.org/10.46661/ijeri.5351 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Irgatoğlu, A., Sarıçoban, A., Özcan, M., & Dağbaşı, G. (2022). Learner autonomy and learning strategy use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 14(10), 6118. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106118 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Kamisli, M. U., & Akinlar, A. (2022). Emergency distance education experiences of EFL instructors and students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adult Learning, https://doi.org/10.1177/10451595221094075 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Karataş, T. Ö., & Tuncer, H. (2020). Sustaining language skills development of pre-service EFL teachers despite the COVID-19 interruption: A case of emergency distance education. Sustainability, 12(19), 8188. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198188 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Kim, H. S. (2021). Beyond doubt and uncertainty: Religious education for a post-COVID-19 world. Religious Education, 116(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00344087.2021.1873662 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Mahyoob, M. (2020). Challenges of e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced by EFL learners. Arab World English Journal, 11(4) 351-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no4.23 [Google Scholar]
  33. Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online foreign language learning in higher education and its correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(2), 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020781 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Mays, N., Roberts, E., & Popay, J. (2001). Synthesising research evidence. In N. Fulop, P. Allen, A. Clarke, & N. Black (Eds.) Studying the organisation and delivery of health services: Research methods. London Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  35. Moore, J. L., Dickson-Deane, C., & Galyen, K. (2011). e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same?. The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.10.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Polat, M. (2021). Pre-service teachers' digital literacy levels, views on distance education and pre-university school memories. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(5), 299-314. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.19 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Raktham, C. (2022). Thai university students’ perceptions of online education after extended period of emergency remote education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(5), 59-74. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.467.4 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Google Scholar]
  39. Rigo, F., & Mikuš, J. (2021). Asynchronous and synchronous distance learning of English as a foreign language. Media Literacy and Academic Research, 4(1), 89-106. [Google Scholar]
  40. Sánchez-Cruzado, C., Santiago Campión, R., & Sánchez-Compaña, M. T. (2021). Teacher digital literacy: The indisputable challenge after COVID-19. Sustainability, 13(4), 1858. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041858 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Shim, T. E., & Lee, S. Y. (2020). College students’ experience of emergency remote teaching due to COVID-19. Children and Youth Services Review, 119, 105578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105578 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Stauffer, B. (2020, April 2). What’s the difference between online learning and distance learning?. Applied Educational Systems. https://www.aeseducation.com/blog/online-learning-vs-distance-learning [Google Scholar]
  43. Taşçı, S. (2021). Evaluation of emergency distance language education: Perspectives of ELT students. Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 11(1), 286-300. https://doi.org/10.30783/nevsosbilen.877657 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Teng, F. (2019). Autonomy, agency, and identity in teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Springer Nature, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0728-7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. To'ifah, S., & Sari, F. M. (2022). An exploration of university students’ challenges in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) during COVID-19 pandemic. TEKNOSASTIK, 20(2), 113-122. [Google Scholar]
  46. Tuncer, H., & Karataş, T. Ö. (2022). Recommendations of ELT students for four language skills development: A study on emergency distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. SAGE Open, 12(1), 21582440221079888. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F21582440221079888 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  47. Yundayani, A., Abdullah, F., Tandiana, S. T., & Sutrisno, B. (2021). Students' cognitive engagement during emergency remote teaching: Evidence from the Indonesian EFL milieu. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 17(1), 17-33. https://doi.org/10.52462/jlls.2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]