International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(4) 64-86

Cultural Diversity Through the Lenses of Teachers: A SWOT Analysis

Yahya Han Erbaş

pp. 64 - 86   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2211-16-0003.R1

Published online: December 05, 2022  |   Number of Views: 112  |  Number of Download: 276


Türkiye hosts a diversity of numerous cultural groups regarding its location and social structure. The inclusion of these culturally diverse groups in the education system makes it necessary to evaluate teachers' perspectives and experiences on differences. The purpose of the study is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of cultural diversity as well as the opportunities and threats that cultural diversity poses to teachers. The research is designed as a qualitative phenomenological study to reveal the perceptions of the participants about the cultural diversity that exists in schools. In this study, teachers were reached by using the snowball sampling method of the purposive sampling approach. 118 teachers who are still teaching in Türkiye’s various regions during the 2021-2022 academic year voluntarily filled out the online form. The data obtained were transferred to the MAXQDA package program and similar expressions were gathered under four main themes: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The main themes were created to consist of the steps of the SWOT analysis. Then, content analysis was applied to the data categorized according to the SWOT analysis steps. According to the findings, the strengths of cultural diversity in the classroom mostly gathered around “knowledge construction” and “supporting creativity”. The findings also indicated that teachers' views on the weaknesses of cultural diversity mostly gathered around “difficulty addressing all differences” and “lack of communication”, and teachers’ views on the threats against cultural diversity mostly gathered around “cultural conflict” and “cultural insensitivity”. Finally, teachers also believe that “learning cultural components” and gaining new experiences” are the most important opportunities for cultural diversity.

Keywords: Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, SWOT Analysis, Qualitative Research

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Erbas, Y.H. (2022). Cultural Diversity Through the Lenses of Teachers: A SWOT Analysis . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), 64-86. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.478.3

Erbas, Y. (2022). Cultural Diversity Through the Lenses of Teachers: A SWOT Analysis . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(4), pp. 64-86.

Chicago 16th edition
Erbas, Yahya Han (2022). "Cultural Diversity Through the Lenses of Teachers: A SWOT Analysis ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (4):64-86. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.478.3.

  1. Arar, K., Örücü, D. & Küçükçayır, G.A. (2019). Dramatic experiences of educators coping with the influx of Syrian refugees in Syrian schools in Turkey, Arar, K., Brooks, J.S. and Bogotch, I. (Ed.) Education, immigration and migration (studies in educational administration), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 145-167.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Aydın, H. (2012). Multicultural education curriculum development in Turkey. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 277-277.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Banks, J.A. (1994). Introduction to multicultural education. Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  4. Banks, J. A. (1995). The historical reconstruction of knowledge about race: Implications for transformative teaching. Educational researcher, 24(2), 15-25. [Google Scholar]
  5. Berry, J. (2016). Diversity and equity. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(3), 413-430. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Brown-Jeffy, S., & Cooper, J. E. (2011). Toward a conceptual framework of culturally relevant pedagogy: An overview of the conceptual and theoretical literature. Teacher education quarterly, 38(1), 65-84. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bülbül, S., & Köse, A. (2010). Türkiye’de bölgelerarası iç göç hareketlerinin çok boyutlu ölçekleme yöntemi ile incelenmesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 39(1), 75-94. [Google Scholar]
  8. Cherng, H.-Y. S., & Davis, L. A. (2019). Multicultural matters: An investigation of key assumptions of multicultural education reform in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 70(3), 219–236. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Chuang, S. (2013). Essential skills for leadership effectiveness in diverse workplace development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1), 1-24.  [Google Scholar]
  10. Cockrell, K. S., Placier, P. L., Cockrell, D. H., & Middleton, J. N. (1999). Coming to terms with “diversity” and “multiculturalism” in teacher education: Learning about our students, changing our practice. Teaching and teacher education, 15(4), 351-366. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cousik, R. (2015), Cultural and functional diversity in the elementary classroom: strategies for teachers, Journal for Multicultural Education, 9(2), 54-67. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Creswell. J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  13. Dandy, J., & Pe-Pua, R. (2010). Attitudes to multiculturalism, immigration and cultural diversity: Comparison of dominant and non-dominant groups in three Australian states. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(1), 34-46. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Davis, G., Anroop, D., Ahmadian, A., Dumais, N., & Shamisa, A. (2022, April 1). Multiculturalism in the classroom is the gateway to a richer learning environment. Classroom Practice in 2022. Retrieved on June 8, 2022 from  [Google Scholar]
  15. Erbaş, Y.H. (2019). Dimensions of multicultural education: Pedagogical practices knowledge of graduate students towards multicultural education in Turkey. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Research, 13(27), 142-181. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Erbaş, Y.H. (2021). Migration and mobility in youth (Turkey). In Eryaman, M.Y. (Regional Editor), Tilleczek K. (Editor in Chief), Bloomsbury education and childhood studies (pp. 1-6). Bloomsbury Academic.  [Google Scholar]
  17. Eryaman, M. Y., & Evran, S. (2019). Syrian refugee students’ lived experiences at temporary education centres in Turkey. In K. Arar, J. Brooks, & I. Bogotch (Eds.), Education, Immigration, and migration: Policy, Leadership and Praxis for a changing world (pp. 131–143). Emerald Publishing Limited. [Google Scholar]
  18. Figen, E. (2015). Türkiye’de göçmen eğitimi sorunsalı ve göçmen eğitiminde farklılığın yönetimi. Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(2), 17-30. [Google Scholar]
  19. Fullinwider, R. (2001). Multicultural education and cosmopolitan citizenship. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(3), 331-343. [Google Scholar]
  20. Gay, G. (2004). The importance of multicultural education. In D.J. Flinders & S.J. Thornton (Eds.), The curriculum studies reader (pp.315-320). Routledge Falmer. [Google Scholar]
  21. Gay, G., & Howard, T.C. (2000). Multicultural teacher education for the 21st century. Teacher Educator, 36 (1), 1-16. [Google Scholar]
  22. Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü (GİGM) (2022, November 3). Geçici koruma. Retrieved November 5, 2022, from   [Google Scholar]
  23. Grant, C. A., & Sleeter, C. E. (2003). Turning on learning: Five approaches for multicultural teaching plans for race, class, gender, and disability (3rd ed.). Wiley [Google Scholar]
  24. Helms, M.M. & Nixon, J. (2010). Exploring SWOT analysis – where are we now? A review of academic research from the last decade. Journal of Strategy and Management, 3(3), 215-251. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Hopper, S. B. (2014). Bringing the world to the classroom through videoconferencing and project-based learning. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 58(3), 78-89.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Hurn, B. J., & Tomalin, B. (2013). Multiculturalism and diversity. In Cross-cultural communication (pp. 191-207). Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
  27. Inglis, C. (2008). Planning for cultural diversity. UNESCO. [Google Scholar]
  28. International Organization for Migration (IOM)- The UN Migration Agency (2019). World migration report 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2022 from   [Google Scholar]
  29. Karakaş, H., & Erbaş, Y. H. (2018). Öğretmen adaylarının çokkültürlü deneyimleri ve (Türkiye’deki) kültürel ve sosyal gruplara yönelik düşünceleri. Uluslararası Sosyal ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(9), 59-81. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Karslı-Calamak, E. & Kılınç, S. (2021) Becoming the teacher of a refugee child: Teachers’ evolving experiences in Turkey. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 25(2), 259-282,  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Keengwe, J. (2010). Fostering cross cultural competence in preservice teachers through multicultural education experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3), 197-204.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Kotluk, N., & Aydın, H. (2021). Culturally relevant/sustaining pedagogy in a diverse urban classroom: Challenges of pedagogy for Syrian refugee youths and teachers in Turkey. British Educational Research Journal, 47(4), 900-921.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Kuppens, L., Ibrahim, S., & Langer, A. (2020). Unity over diversity? Teachers’ perceptions and practices of multicultural education in Kenya. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 50(5), 693-712. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Lew, M. M., & Nelson, R. F. (2016). New teachers' challenges: how culturally responsive teaching, classroom management, & assessment literacy are intertwined. Multicultural Education, 23, 7-13. [Google Scholar]
  35. Merlin-Knoblich, C., & Chen, J. A. (2018). A survey of school counselor multicultural education behaviors and the obstacles that impede them. Journal of School Counseling, 16(22), 1-33. [Google Scholar]
  36. Miller Dyce, C., & Owusu-Ansah, A. (2016). Yes, we are still talking about diversity: Diversity education as a catalyst for transformative, culturally relevant, and reflective preservice teacher practices. Journal of Transformative Education, 14(4), 327-354. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Milner, H. R. (2010). What does teacher education have to do with teaching: Implications for diversity study? Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1–2), 1118–1131. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Munalim, L. O. (2020). Micro and macro practices of multicultural education in a Philippine University: Is it global integration ready? The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(5), 441-454.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Nieto, S. (2004). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education. Allyn and Bacon.  [Google Scholar]
  40. Özturgut, O. (2011). Understanding multicultural education. Current issues in education, 14(2), 1-9. [Google Scholar]
  41. Pass, S., White, J., Owens, E., & Weir, J. (2006). Bringing cultures into the classroom: An invitation to families. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 19 (2), 16-18.  [Google Scholar]
  42. Phuntsog, N. (1999). The magic of culturally responsive pedagogy: In search of the genie's lamp in multicultural education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 97-111. [Google Scholar]
  43. Saban, A. (2008). Okula ilişkin metaforlar. Kuram ve uygulamada eğitim yönetimi, 55(55), 459-496. [Google Scholar]
  44. Saint-Hilaire, L. A. (2014). So, how do I teach them? Understanding multicultural education and culturally relevant pedagogy. Reflective practice, 15(5), 592-602. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2013). Before they teach: How preservice teachers plan for linguistically diverse students. Teacher Education Quarterly, 40(4), 5-26.  [Google Scholar]
  46. Sarı, M. H., & Yüce, E. (2020). Problems experienced in classrooms with students from different cultures. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 13(2), 90-100. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  47. Sarraj, H., Bene, K., Li, J., & Burley, H. (2015). Raising cultural awareness of fifth-grade students through multicultural education: An action research study. Multicultural Education, 22(2), 39-45. [Google Scholar]
  48. Sarsby, A. (2016). SWOT analysis: A guide to SWOT for business studies students. Spectaris Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  49. Schwartz, S. H. 2004. Mapping and interpreting cultural differences around the world. In H. Vinken, J. Soeters, & P. Ester (Eds.), Comparing cultures: Dimensions of culture in a comparative perspective: 43-73. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. [Google Scholar]
  50. Sides, J., & Citrin, J. (2007). European opinion about immigration: The role of identities, interests and information. British Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 477-504.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. Thomas, S., & Kearney, J. (2008). Teachers working in culturally diverse classrooms: implications for the development of professional standards and for teacher education. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), 105-120. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  52. Tichnor-Wagner, A. (2016). A global perspective: Bringing the world into classrooms. Education Week: Teacher. Retrieved October 18, 2022 from  [Google Scholar]
  53. Tiwari, S. K., & Lal, D. (2016). Multiculturalism to address the classroom diversity. International Journal of Peace, Education and Development, 4(1), 19-23.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  54. Tonbuloğlu, B., Aslan, D. & Aydın, H. (2016). Teachers’ awareness of multicultural education and diversity in school settings. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 16 (64), 1-28. [Google Scholar]
  55. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of teacher education, 53(1), 20-32. [Google Scholar]
  56. Warren, C. A. (2014). Towards a pedagogy for the application of empathy in culturally diverse classrooms. The Urban Review, 46(3), 395-419.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Yeung, A. S. (2006). Teachers’ conceptions of borderless–a cross-cultural study on multicultural sensitivity of the Chinese teachers. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 5(1), 33-53.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  58. Yıldırım, A., & Simsek, H. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Seçkin Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  59. Yıldırım, R. (2019). Teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms: Turkish EFL instructors’ experience. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(3), 1155-1170. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  60. Yılmaz, A. (2014). Uluslararası göç: Çeşitleri̇, nedenleri̇ ve etkileri̇. Electronic Turkish Studies, 9(2), 1685–1704.  [Google Scholar]
  61. Yuan, H. (2018). Educating culturally responsive Han teachers: Case study of a teacher education program in China. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 20(2), 42-57. [Google Scholar]