International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2023, Vol. 18(2) 133-147

A Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes towards Virtual Classroom Environment Scale

Filiz Çetin & Özden Demirkan

pp. 133 - 147   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2023.548.7   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2211-29-0001.R1

Published online: June 07, 2023  |   Number of Views: 34  |  Number of Download: 177


Abstract

This studyaims to develop a measurement tool to be used to determine the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards virtual classroom environments. For this purpose, the literature on the subject was examined, and student opinions were taken. As a result of these processes, a 50-item piloting form of the scale was prepared. The prepared scale items were presented to the expert opinion in terms of content validity, and after the feedback obtained from the experts, some items were rearranged with minor corrections and transformed into a 50-item scale. The scale was administered to 282 students, 234 female and 48 male, studying in different teaching programs and different grade levels at Gazi University Gazi Faculty of Education in the spring term of the 2021-2022 academic year. Validity and reliability analyses of the scale were made based on the data set obtained as a result of the application. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed for construct validity, and as a result of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), a scale consisting of 46 items and 2 sub-dimensions was obtained. The total variance explanation rate of the two factors in the structure of the scale was 62.79%. The reliability analysis results obtained for the scale revealed that the Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the overall scale was .98, and the reliability coefficients for the sub-factors were .98 and .96, respectively.

Keywords: Virtual Classroom, Attitude, Pre-Service Teachers


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Cetin, F. & Demirkan, O. (2023). A Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes towards Virtual Classroom Environment Scale . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(2), 133-147. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.7

Harvard
Cetin, F. and Demirkan, O. (2023). A Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes towards Virtual Classroom Environment Scale . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(2), pp. 133-147.

Chicago 16th edition
Cetin, Filiz and Ozden Demirkan (2023). "A Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes towards Virtual Classroom Environment Scale ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 18 (2):133-147. doi:10.29329/epasr.2023.548.7.

References
  1. Alhat, Swapnil. (2020). Virtual Classroom: A Future of Education Post COVID-19. Shanlax International Journal of Education, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 101-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34293/ education.v8i4.3238  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Almuqbil, N.S.M. (2021).The Impact of a Training Program Using Virtual Classroom On The Teaching Competencies And The Development Of Virtual Classroom's Skills Among Female Student-Teachers, İlköğretim Online-Elementary Education Online, Year; Vol 20 (Issue 4): pp. 2629-2638 http://ilkogretim-online.org DOI: 10.17051/ilkonline.2021.04.301 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atıcı, B. (2004). Sosyal bilgi inşasınadayalı sanal öğrenme çevrelerinin öğrenci başarısı ve tutumlarına etkisi. Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Eğitim Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı, Elazığ. [Google Scholar]
  4. Büyüköztürk, Ş. vd. (2012). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (11. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi [Google Scholar]
  5. Can, E. (2020). Sanal sınıf yönetimi: İlkeler, uygulamalar ve öneriler, Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi AUAD, 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 4, 251-295. [Google Scholar]
  6. Can, E. Ve Gündüz, Y. (2021). Öğretmenlerin Sanal Sınıf Yönetimi Yeterlikleri, ISSN: 1304-4796 Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Manisa Celal Bayar University Journal of SocialSciences 2021; 19 (3); 49-68. DOI: 10.18026/cbayarsos.875435 [Google Scholar]
  7. DeVellis, R. F. (2017). Scale  development: Theory and applications (4th ed.).ThousandOaks CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  8. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4. edition). London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  9. Fraenkel J., Wallen N., &Hyu, H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. Newyork: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  10. Greenan, K.A. (2021).The Influence of Virtual Education on Classroom Culture. Front. Commun. 6:641214. DOI: 10.3389/fcomm.2021.641214 [Google Scholar]
  11. Glossary of Education Reform, (2014). Learning Environment Definition, www.edglossary.org/learning-environment/ [Google Scholar]
  12. Kalaycı, Ş. (2006). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri [Multivariate statistical techniques with SPSS application]. Asil. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kalelioğlu,F., Atan,A. Ve Çetin, Ç.(2016). Sanal Sınıf Ortamında Eğitmen ve Öğrenen Deneyimleri. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 2016; 12(2): 555-568 [Google Scholar]
  14. Karatay, H. veKartallıoğlu, N. (2012). Kırgız öğrencilerin türkiye Türkçesi öğrenmeye ilişkin tutumları. TürkçeEğitimiveÖğretimiAraştırmalarıDergisi, 2(4). [Google Scholar]
  15. Li, L. (2012). Student Misbehaviors and Teacher Techniques in Online Classrooms: Instrument Development and Validation. PhD Thesis, Ohio University. [Google Scholar]
  16. Murphy, E., &Rodrigues-Manzanares, M.A. (2008). Contradictions between the virtual and physical high school classroom: A third-generation activity theoryperspective. British Journal of EducationalTechnology, 39(6), 1061-1072. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 8535.2007.00776.x. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Özdamar, K. (2013). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi 1. cilt. Eskişehir: Nisan [Google Scholar]
  18. Sage, K., Jackson, S., Fox, E. and Maurer, L. (2021). Thevirtual COVID-19 classroom: surveying outcomes, individual differences, and technology use in college students. Smart Learn. Environ. 8, 27https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-021-00174-7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Sanders, D. W. & Morrison-Shetlar, A. I. (2001). Student attitudes Toward Web-Enhanced Instruction in an Introductory Biology Course. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(3), 251-262 [Google Scholar]
  20. Sam, A. (2020). What Is a Virtual Classroom and Why Is It the Future of Online Learning?eLearning Industryhttps://elearningindustry.com/live-online-learning-webinar-vs-virtual-classroom [Google Scholar]
  21. Soodtoetong, N. and Rattanasiriwongwut, M. (2022). Educational Transformation with Virtual Classroom: Integrated between TTF and Social Motivation, TEM Journal. Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 439-445, ISSN 2217-309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM111-56 https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM111-56 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Tabachnıck, B. G., &Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  23. Terada, Y. (2020). Reading the Virtual Classroom Is Hard, but It Can Be Done, edutopia, George Lucas EducationalFoundation,https://www.edutopia.org/article/reading-virtual-classroom-hard-it-can-be-done [Google Scholar]
  24. Tavşancıl, E.(2014).Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS İle Veri Analizi. Nobel Yayıncılık. Ankara. 48. [Google Scholar]
  25. Tezbaşaran, A. (2008). Likert Tipi Ölçek Hazırlama Kılavuzu. Mersin Türk Psikologlar Derneği. [Google Scholar]
  26. Turoff, M. (1995). Designing a Virtual Classroom, 1995 International Conference on Computer Assisted Instruction ICCAI'95, March 7-10, 1995, National ChiaoTung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.   [Google Scholar]
  27. Xenos M. (2018).TheFuture of Virtual Classroom: Using Existing Features to Move Beyond Traditional Classroom Limitations. In: Auer M., Tsiatsos T. (eds) Interactive Mobile Communication Technologies and Learning, pp. 944- 951. IMCL 2017. Advances in IntelligentSystems and Computing, vol 725. Springer. [Google Scholar]
  28. Willermark, S. (2021). Who’sThere? Characterizing Interaction in Virtual Classrooms, Journal of Educational Computing Research 2021, Vol. 59(6) 1036–1055 DOI: 10.1177/0735633120988530    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yan, A. (2021). Virtual Classroom, https://english.best/articles/articles/virtual-classroom [Google Scholar]
  30. Yaşlıca, E. (2019). Sanal Sınıf Ortamında Etkileşimli Öğretim Materyalinin Başarıya ve Tutuma Etkisi. Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi. Maltepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. İletişim Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  31. Yılmaz, Ö. (2015). The Effects of “Live Virtual Classroom” On Students’ Achievement and Students’ Opinions About “Live Virtual Classroom” At dıstance Education. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2015, volume 14 issue 1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282889631 [Google Scholar]