International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2023, Vol. 18(2) 86-106

What Role Do Visions About Future and Vocational Outcome Expectations Have on Proactive Career Behaviors? Examining a Mediation Model on University Students

Ozan Korkmaz & Faruk Caner Yam

pp. 86 - 106   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2023.548.5   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2303-27-0003.R1

Published online: June 07, 2023  |   Number of Views: 45  |  Number of Download: 162


Abstract

Adapting to the rapidly changing business and working world today is a behavior that every individual needs, no matter what stage of their career. One of the important variables that make it easier for individuals to adapt to these changes is proactive career behaviors. Addressing the roles of the variables that strengthen proactive career behaviors within a certain approach (i.e., Social Cognitive Career Theory) will produce results that will contribute to adapting to the change that the individual needs. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the mediating role of vocational outcome expectations in the relationship between the visions about future (hope, optimism, pessimism) and proactive career behaviors. 442 university students participated in the research. The ages of the participants vary between 18-27. The structural equation modeling method was used in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that visions about future and vocational outcome expectations were positively associated with proactive career behaviors. The results also indicated that vocational outcome expectations have been shown to have a partial mediating role in the relationship between the visions about future and proactive career behaviors.

Keywords: Visions About Future, Hope, Optimism, Pessimism, Proactive Career Behaviors, Vocational Outcome Expectations, Social Cognitive Career Theory


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Korkmaz, O. & Yam, F.C. (2023). What Role Do Visions About Future and Vocational Outcome Expectations Have on Proactive Career Behaviors? Examining a Mediation Model on University Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(2), 86-106. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2023.548.5

Harvard
Korkmaz, O. and Yam, F. (2023). What Role Do Visions About Future and Vocational Outcome Expectations Have on Proactive Career Behaviors? Examining a Mediation Model on University Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 18(2), pp. 86-106.

Chicago 16th edition
Korkmaz, Ozan and Faruk Caner Yam (2023). "What Role Do Visions About Future and Vocational Outcome Expectations Have on Proactive Career Behaviors? Examining a Mediation Model on University Students ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 18 (2):86-106. doi:10.29329/epasr.2023.548.5.

References
  1. Adachi, T. (2004). Career self-efficacy, career outcome expectations and vocational interests among Japanese university students. Psychological Reports, 95(1), 89-100. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.95.5.89-100 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Akca, M. S., Korkmaz, O., & Alkal, A. (2018). Turkish form of the Visions About Future Scale: validity and reliability studies. The Journal of Career Counseling, 1(1), 1-21. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kpdd/issue/41808/484194 [Google Scholar]
  3. Akkermans, J., Schaufeli, W. B., Brenninkmeijer, V., & Blonk, R. W. (2013). The role of career competencies in the Job Demands—Resources model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 356-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.011 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Baglama, B., & Uzunboylu, H. (2017). The relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations of preservice special education teachers. South African Journal of Education, 37(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v37n4a1520 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295x.84.2.191 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Betz, N., & Voyten, K. K. (1997). Efficacy and outcome expectation influence career exploration. Career Development Quarterly, 46(2), 197-189. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1997.tb01004.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Bolukbasi, A., & Kirdok, O. (2019). The mediating role of future orientation in the relationship between career adaptability and life satisfaction in high school students. Education and Science, 44, 77-91. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2019.8090 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Bozgeyikli, H. (2005). Mesleki grup rehberliğinin ilköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin meslek kararı vermede kendilerini yetkin görme düzeylerine etkisi [The effect of vocational group guidance on primary school 8th grade students' level of self-efficacy in making career decisions] [Doctoral dissertation, Selcuk University]. YOKTez. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1996). A social cognitive framework for career choice counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 44(4), 354–366. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1996.tb00451.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Buyukgoze-Kavas, A. (2014). Validation of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Turkish form and its relation to hope and optimism. Australian Journal of Career Development, 23(3), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1177/1038416214531931 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879-889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Choi, B. Y., K, Park, H., Nam, S. K., Lee, J., Cho, D., & Lee, S. M. (2011). The development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for college students. Career Development Quarterly, 59(6), 559-572. https://doi.org/10.1002/J.2161-0045.2011.TB00976.X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Diegelman, N. M., & Subich, L. M. (2001). Academic and vocational interests as a function of outcome expectancies in Social Cognitive Career Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 394-405. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1802 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Direnzo, M. S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2011). Job search and voluntary turnover in a boundaryless world: A control theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 36(3), 567-589. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2011.61031812 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Doganulku, H. A. (2022). Life goals and proactive career behaviors: The mediating role of visions about the future and the moderating role of intolerance of uncertainty. Current Psychology. Advance Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03236-2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Doganulku, H. A., & Guneslice, A. (2022). The moderating role of career decision regret in the relationship between visions about the future and proactive career behaviors: Turkey sample. EKEV Akademi Dergisi, 26(91), 75-91. https://doi.org/10.17753/sosekev.1107761 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Domene, J. F., Socholotiuk, K. D., & Woitowicz, L. (2011). Academic motivation in post-secondary students: Effects of career outcome expectations and type of aspiration. Canadian Journal of Education, 34(1), 99-127. https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/351 [Google Scholar]
  20. Eskisu, M., Haspolat, N. K., & Agirkan, M. (2020). Improving career decision self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectancies of psychological counselor candidates. International Journal of Society Research, 16(31), 4186 – 4209. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.720708 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Fay, D., & Kamps, A. (2006). Work characteristics and the emergence of a sustainable workforce: Do job design principles matter? Gedrag & Organisatie, 19(2), 184–203. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2006-08470-005 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fouad, N. A., & Guillen, A. (2006). Outcome expectations: Looking to the past and potential future. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(1), 130-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072705281370 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Ginevra, M. C., Annovazzi, C., Santilli, S., Di Maggio, I., & Camussi, E. (2018). Breadth of vocational interests: The role of career adaptability and future orientation. The Career Development Quarterly, 66(3), 233-245. https://doi.org/10.1002/cdq.12145 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Ginevra, M. C., Santilli, S., Di Maggio, I., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2020). Development and validation of visions about future in early adolescence. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 48(2), 155-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2018.1550188 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Ginevra, M. C., Sgaramella, T. M., Ferrari, L., Nota, L., Santilli, S., & Soresi, S. (2017). Visions about future: A new scale assessing optimism, pessimism, and hope in adolescents. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 17(2), 187-210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-016-9324-z [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than iq. Random House Publishing Group. [Google Scholar]
  27. Gonulluoglu, S., & Cakmak, D. (2022). Examination of the relationship between professional result expectation level and career anxiety: An application on Ferizli vocational students. The Sakarya Journal of Economics, 11(1), 149-170. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sid/issue/68832/1085469 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gurpinar, A. C., Emul, B., & Siyez, D. M. (2021). Career self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations among prospective teachers: Mediating role of career distress. IBAD Journal of Social Sciences, 10, 220-237. https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.852211 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  30. Herrmann, A., Hirschi, A., & Baruch, Y. (2015). The protean career orientation as predictor of career outcomes: Evaluation of incremental validity and mediation effects. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.03.008 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Hirschi, A. (2014). Hope as a resource for self-directed career management: Investigating mediating effects on proactive career behaviors and life and job satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1495-1512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9488-x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Hirschi, A., & Freund, P. A. (2014). Career Engagement: Investigating intraindividual predictors of weekly fluctuations in proactive career behaviors. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2014.00066.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Hirschi, A., Abessolo, M., & Froidevaux, A. (2015). Hope as a resource for career exploration: Examining incremental and cross-lagged effects. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 38–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.10.006 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Hirschi, A., Freund, P. A., & Herrmann, A. (2014). The Career Engagement Scale: Development and validation of a measure of proactive career behaviors. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(4), 575-594. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072713514813 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Isik, E. (2010). Sosyal bilişsel kariyer teorisi temelli bir grup müdahalesinin üniversite öğrencilerinin kariyer kararı yetkinlik ve mesleki sonuç beklenti düzeylerine etkisi [Effects of a social cognitive career theory-based group intervention on career decision self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations among undergraduate students] [Doctoral dissertation, Cukurova University]. YOKTez. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi [Google Scholar]
  37. Isik, E. (2013). Perceived social support and locus of control as the predictors of vocational outcome expectations. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(3). 1426-1430. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2013.3.1520 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Jackson, D., & Tomlinson, M. (2019). Career values and proactive career behaviour among contemporary higher education students. Journal of Education and Work, 32(5), 449-464. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2019.1679730 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Kim, J. G., & Lee, K. (2019) Major incongruence and occupational engagement: A moderated mediation model of career distress and outcome expectation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2360), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02360 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  40. Korkmaz, O. (2023). “Visions about future: Hope, optimism, and pessimism” as predictor of university students’ proactive career behavior. International Academic Social Resources Journal, 8(45), 1914-1922. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/ASRJOURNAL.67583 [Google Scholar]
  41. Korkmaz, O., & Cenkseven-Onder, F. (2019). The Relation between life goals and career adapt-abilities: An investigation of the mediating role of hope. Education and Science, 44, 59-76. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2019.8380 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Korkmaz, O., & Doganulku, H. A. (2022). Fear of COVID-19 and career distress: Mediating role of visions about the future. The Journal of Human and Work, 9(1), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.18394/iid.984101 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Korkmaz, O., Kirdok, O., Alkal, A., & Akca, M. Ş. (2020). Career Engagement Scale: Validity and reliability study of the measurement of proactive career behavior. International Social Sciences Studies Journal, 72(6), 4668-4677. https://doi.org/10.26449/sssj.2570 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Kuzgun, Y. (2009). Meslek danışmanlığı kuramlar uygulamalar [Vocational counseling theories applications]. Nobel Yayin Dagitim. [Google Scholar]
  45. Lent, R. W. (2005). A social cognitive view of career development and counseling. In R. Lent (Ed.), Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (pp. 101-127). John Wiley & Sons Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  46. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79–122. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1994.1027 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  47. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 36-49. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.47.1.36 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  48. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2002). Social cognitive career theory. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 255-311). Jossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  49. Lent, R. W., Ireland, G. W., Penn, L. T., Morris, T. R., & Sappington, R. (2017). Sources of self-efficacy and outcome expectations for career exploration and decision-making: A test of the social cognitive model of career self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 99, 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.01.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Lopes, M. P., & Cunha, M. P. E. (2008). Who is more proactive, the optimist or the pessimist? Exploring the role of hope as a moderator. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 100–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760701760575 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. McWhirter, E. H., Crothers, M., & Rasheed, S. (2000). The effects of high school career education on social–cognitive variables. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 330-341. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.47.3.330 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  52. Turkish Ministry of Education. (2018). 2023 Eğitim Vizyonu. https://www.gmka.gov.tr/dokumanlar/yayinlar/2023_E%C4%9Fitim%20Vizyonu.pdf [Google Scholar]
  53. Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2017). Development through life: A psychosocial approach (13th ed.). Cengage Learning. [Google Scholar]
  54. Niles, S. G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2021). Career developments interventions in the 21st century. Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  55. Ozyurek, R. (2018). Sosyal-bilişsel yaklaşımlar [Social-cognitive approaches]. In B. Yeşilyaprak (Ed.), Mesleki rehberlik ve kariyer danışmanlığı kuramdan uygulamaya [Vocational guidance and career counseling from theory to practice] (9. ed., pp. 220-268). Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  56. Patton, W., Bartrum, D. A., & Creed, P. A. (2004). Gender differences for optimism, self-esteem, expectations and goals in predicting career planning and exploration in adolescents. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 4, 193–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-005-1745-z [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Rogers, M. E., Creed, P. A., & Glendon, A. I. (2008). The role of personality in adolescent career planning and exploration: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 132-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.02.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  58. Santilli, S., Marcionetti, J., Rochat, S., Rossier, L., & Nota, L. (2017). Career adaptability, hope, optimism, and life satisfaction in Italian and Swiss adolescents. Journal of Career Development, 44(1), 62-76, https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845316633793 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Sari, S. V., Kabadayi, F., & Sahin, M. (2017). Explanation of vocational outcome expectation: Self-transcendence, self-consciousness and self-control/self-management. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 7(48), 145-159. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/598378 [Google Scholar]
  60. Schaub, M., & Tokar, D. M. (2005). The role of personality and learning experiences in Social Cognitive Career Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 304–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.09.005 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  61. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1304_01 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Allyn&Bacon, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  63. Vela, J. C., Lerma, E., Whittenberg, J. F., Hinojosa, Y., & Rodriguez, K. (2019). The role of positive psychology, cultural, and family factors in Latina/o college students’ vocational outcome expectations. Journal of Employment Counseling, 56(4), 164-179. https://doi.org/10.1002/joec.12131 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  64. Vela, J. C., Lu, M. T., Lenz, A. S., & Hinojosa, K. (2015a). Positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of Latina/o college students’ psychological grit. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 37(3), 287–303. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986315588917 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Yeh, C. J., & Borrero, N. E. (2012). Evaluation of a health careers program for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 40(4), 227–239. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2012.00020.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  66. Yerin-Guneri, O., Owen, D.W., Tanrikulu, I., Dolunay-Cug, F., & Buyukgoze-Kavas, A. (2016). Examining career development needs of faculty of education students. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 12(1), 178-193. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/262388 [Google Scholar]
  67. Yilmaz, I., Dundar, A., & Atli, A. (2020). Expectation of vocational outcome as a predictor of life satisfaction of university students. Inonu University Journal of the Graduate School of Education, 7(13), 68-77. https://doi.org/10.29129/inujgse.640817 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]