International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(2) 31-49

Psychological Mindedness in ELT: Exploring Contributions of Comparative Literature to Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Psychological Mindedness

Esin Kumlu

pp. 31 - 49   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2105-07-0005

Published online: June 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 138  |  Number of Download: 349


This qualitative research aimed to explore the significance of the development of psychological mindedness, especially during the COVID-19 Pandemic, for pre-service English Language Teachers and the use of comparative literature to facilitate it. The research was conducted in the context of an undergraduate ELT program in Turkey and data was gathered through narrative inquiry at the end of the semester under the title of a selected literature course. Thematic analysis of the collected 39 narrative frames shed light on the development of pre-service teachers’ psychological mindedness which emerged in three overarching themes; self-awareness, empathy, and the importance of mental and physical well-being of a teacher which are all the necessary conditions for psychological mindedness. Findings suggest that these pre-service teachers were strongly influenced by the comparative analysis of the literary texts that facilitated the development of psychological mindedness.

Keywords: Psychological Mindedness, Comparative Literature, COVID-19, English Language Teacher Education, Pre-service Teacher Education

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kumlu, E. (2022). Psychological Mindedness in ELT: Exploring Contributions of Comparative Literature to Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Psychological Mindedness . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(2), 31-49. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.442.2

Kumlu, E. (2022). Psychological Mindedness in ELT: Exploring Contributions of Comparative Literature to Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Psychological Mindedness . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(2), pp. 31-49.

Chicago 16th edition
Kumlu, Esin (2022). "Psychological Mindedness in ELT: Exploring Contributions of Comparative Literature to Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Psychological Mindedness ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (2):31-49. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.442.2.

  1. Aerila, J.-A., & Merisuo-Storm, T. (2017). Emergent readers and the joy of reading: A finnish perspective. Creative Education, 8(15), 2485-2500.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Anttila, H., Pyhältö, K., Soini, T., & Pietarinen, J. (2016). How does it feel to become a teacher? Emotions in teacher education. Social Psychology of Education, 19(3), 451-473. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Applebaum, S.A. (1973). Psychological-mindedness: word, concept and essence. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. 54, 35-46. [Google Scholar] [Google Scholar]
  4. Arrebola, R. M., Martínez, A.M., Ortega, F.Z., Mata, S.S., Cortés, A.J., & José Jiménez, J.L.U. (2017). La actividad física como promotora de la inteligencia emocional en docentes. Revisión Bibliográfica. Trances, 9(1), 261-276. [Google Scholar]
  5. Asbury, K., & Kim, L. E. (2020). “Lazy, lazy teachers”: Teachers’ perceptions of how their profession is valued by society, policymakers, and the media during COVID-19. Valuing of Teaching Profession. 63(2), 244-260. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item toronto alexithymia scale–I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(1), 23-32. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Barkhuizen, G. (2011). Narrative knowledging in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 45 (3), 391–414. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Beitel, M., & Cecero, J. J. (2003). Predicting psychological mindedness from personality style and attachment security. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 163–172. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Beitel M., Ferrer E., & Cecero J. (2005). Psychological mindedness and awareness of self and others. Journal of Clinical Psychology 61(6), 739–750. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Boyatzis, R.E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: thematic analysis and code development. Sage. [Google Scholar]
  11. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
  13. Carrillo,  C., & Flores, M.  A. (2020). COVID-19  and teacher  education:  A literature review of online teaching  and  learning  practices. European  Journal  of Teacher  Education, 43(4),  466–487.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Chang, M. L. (2020). Emotion display rules, emotion regulation, and teacher burnout. Frontiers in education, 5(90), 1-11. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Clandinin D.J., Pushor D., & Orr, A.M. (2007). Navigating sites for narrative inquiry. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(1), 21-35. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Clandinin, D.J., & Connelly, F.M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: experience and story in qualitative research. Jossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  17. Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (2006). Narrative inquiry. J. L. Green, G. Camilli, & P. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research (3rd ed., pp. 477-487). Lawrence Erlbaum. [Google Scholar]
  18. Conte, H.R., Buckley, P., Picard., S., & Karasu, B. (1995). Relationships between psychological Mindedness and personality traits and ego functioning: Validity Studies. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36(1), 11-17. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Conte, H. R., & Ratto, R. (1997). Self-report measures of psychological mindedness. In M. McCallum & W. E. Piper (Eds.), The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. Psychological mindedness: A contemporary understanding (p.1–26). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  20. Cutri, R.M., & Mena, J. (2020). A critical reconceptualization of faculty readiness for online teaching. Distance Education, 41(3), 361-380.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113–126. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Dominguez, C., Saussy, H., & Villanueva, D. (2015). Introducing Comparative Literature. New Trends and Applications. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  23. Eliot, T.S. (2011). A Broadview Anthology of British Literature Edition. The Waste Land and Other Poems. Broadview Press. [Google Scholar]
  24. Ellis, V., Steadman, S., & Mao., Q. (2020). Come to a screeching halt: Can change in teacher education during the COVID-19 pandemic be seen as innovation?”. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 559–572. https://doi:10.1080/02619768.2020.1821186 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Ellis, N. J., Alonzo, D., & Nguyen, H. T. M. (2020). Elements of a quality pre-service teacher mentor: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 92(103072), 1-13. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Farber, B. A. (1985). The genesis, development, and implications of psychological-mindedness in psychotherapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 22(2),170–177. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Fenigstein, A. (1997). Self-consciousness and its relation to psychological mindedness. M. McCallum & W. E. Piper, (Eds.). The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. Psychological mindedness: A contemporary understanding (pp.105-131). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  28. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522–527.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Flores, M.A.; Swennen, A. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education. 43(4), 453–456. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Ghasemi, F. (2021). EFL teachers’ burnout and individual psychology: The effect of an empowering program and cognitive restructuring techniques. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. Advance online publication. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Gkonou, C. & Mercer, S. (2017). Understanding emotional and social intelligence among English language teachers. British Council. [Google Scholar]
  32. Gough, H.G. (1957). California Psychological Inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press. [Google Scholar]
  33. Grayzel, S. R. (2013).  Women and the First World War. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  34. Guy, J.D. & Brown, C.K. (1992). How to benefit emotionally from private practice. Psychoterapy in Private Practice, 10(4), 27-39. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35.  Güven, D.Ç. (2019), Non-European literature in translation: A plea for the counter-canonization of weltliteratur. Esen, E., & Miyashita, R. (Eds.), Shaping the Field of Translation. In Japanese-Turkish contexts I. (pp. 65-83). Peter Lang. [Google Scholar]
  36. Hadar, L. L., O. Ergas, B. Alpert, and T. Ariav. (2020). Rethinking teacher education in a VUCA world: Student teachers’ social-emotional competencies during the COVID-19 Crisis. European Journal of Teacher Education. 43(4), 573-586. https://doi:10.1080/02619768.2020.1807513. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Hall, J.A. (1992). Psychological-mindedness: a conceptual model. American Journal of Psycho-therapy, 46, 131–140.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Hammond, D. L., & Hyler, M. E. (2020). Preparing educators for the time of COVID and beyond. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 1–9. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Johnson, K. (2006). The sociocultural turn and its challenges for second language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 235–257. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  40. Kadra-Scalzo G, Garland J, Miller S, Chang CK, Fok M, Hayes RD, Moran P, Shetty H, Young AH, Stewart R. (2021). Comparing psychotropic medication prescribing in personality disorder between general mental health and psychological services: retrospective cohort study. BJPsych Open. 7(2), 1-6.  https://doi: 10.1192/bjo.2021.34 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Kassim, M.A.M., Pang, N.T.P., Mohamed, N.H. et al. (2021). Relationship Between Fear of COVID-19, Psychopathology and Sociodemographic Variables in Malaysian  Population. Int J Ment Health Addiction. 7, 1-8. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Kefeli, E. (2000). Karşılaştırmalı Edebiyat İncelemeleri. Kitabevi Yayınları. [Google Scholar]
  43. King, N. (2004). Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.), Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research (pp. 257–270). Sage. [Google Scholar]
  44. Krupp J, Liesen L, & Hamburger A. (2020). The measurement of psychological mindedness: a validation study of the German version of the balanced index of psychological mindedness (BIPM). Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie. 66(2),164-177. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Le Boutillier, N. & Barry, R. (2018). Psychological mindedness, personality and creative cognition. Creativity Research Journal, 30(1), 78-84.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Lieblich, A., Liybliyk, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., & Zilber, T. (1998). Narrative research: Reading, analysis and interpretation. Sage.  [Google Scholar]
  47. Lyons, N., & LaBoskey, K., (Eds.). (2002). Narrative inquiry in practice: Advancing the knowledge of teaching. Teachers College Press. [Google Scholar]
  48. Maclntyre, P., Tammy, G., Mercer, S. (2016).  Positive psychology in SLA. Short Run Press. [Google Scholar]
  49. Madigan, D. J., & Kim, L. E. (2021). Does teacher burnout affect students?. A systematic review of its association with academic achievement and student-reported outcomes . International Journal of Educational Research, 105(2). 11-17. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(5), 433-443. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. McCallum, F., & Price, D. (2010). Well teachers, well students. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 4(1), 19-34.  [Google Scholar]
  52. Meidani, N., Pishghadam, E., Ghonsooly, R., & Fatemi, H. A. (2020). Constructing and validating a language teachers’ temporal intelligence scale and examining its relationship with teacher burnout. Innovation in language learning and teaching, 14(1),51-66. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Mercer, S., Oberdorfer, P., & Saleem, M. (2016). Helping language teachers to thrive: Using positive psychology to promote teachers' professional well-being. Gabryś-Barker, D., & Gałajda, D. (Eds.), Second language learning and teaching. Positive psychology perspectives on foreign language learning and teaching, (pp. 213–229). Springer International Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  54. Nyklicek, I., Poot, J. C., & van Opstal, J. (2010). Psychological mindedness in relation to personality and coping in a sample of young adult psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 34–45. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Nyklíček, I., & Denollet, J. (2009). Development and evaluation of the Balanced Index of Psychological Mindedness (BIPM). Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 32–44. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Rai, S., Punia, V., Choudhury, S., & Matthew, K. J. (2015). Psychological mindedness: An overview. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 127-132. [Google Scholar] [Google Scholar]
  57. Reimers, F., Schleicher, A. (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. OECD. [Google Scholar]
  58. Roulston, K. (2001), Data analysis and theorizing as ideology. Qualitative Research, 1(3),279-302. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Roxas, A. S., & Glenwick, D. S. (2014). The relationship of psychological mindedness and general coping to psychological adjustment and distress in high-school adolescents. Individual Differences Research, 12,(2), 38–49. [Google Scholar]
  60. Ryan, R., & Brown, K. (2003). Why we don't need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 71-76. [Google Scholar]
  61. Şahin, N., & Yeniçeri, Z., (2015). Farkındalık üzerine üç araç: Psikolojik farkındalık, bütünleyici kendilik farkındalığı ve toronto bilgece farkındalık ölçekleri. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 30 (76), 48-67.  [Google Scholar]
  62. Strachen, H. (Ed.) 1998. The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. 2nd Ed. Oxford UP.   [Google Scholar]
  63.  Uzun, K., Tagay, Ö., & Karataş, Ö. (2020). Ergenler için psikolojik zihinlilik ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 16(2), 322-342. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  64. Warren, C. A. (2018). Empathy, teacher dispositions, and preparation for culturally responsive pedagogy. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(2), 169–183. https://doi:10.1177/0022487117712487  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Woolf, V. (2002). To the lighthouse. Wordsworth.  [Google Scholar]
  66. Zamir, O., & Lavee, Y. (2014). Psychological mindedness as a protective factor against revictimization in intimate relationships. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(9), 847–859. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]