International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(3) 222-237

A Validity and Reliability Study on Developing a Scale for Assessing Classroom Teachers' Attitudes Towards Illustrated Children’s Books

Seyit Ateş & Gül Şebnem Altuner Çoban

pp. 222 - 237   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2022.461.11   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2205-30-0003

Published online: September 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 149  |  Number of Download: 322


Abstract

The aim of this research is to create a scale to assess classroom teachers’ attitudes towards illustrated children’s books and to reveal the psychometric aspects of the scale. Between September 13th and December 22nd, 2021, data for the study were collected from classroom teachers in various provinces of Turkey via social networks. Data were collected from a total of 819 people, 517 of whom were included in the exploratory factor analysis in the first stage, while 302 of whom were included in the second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the second stage. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) done with the first sample group yielded a three-component construct with 20 items, ensuring the construct validity of the scale. A second-order CFA was conducted using the second sample group to give evidence for the construct. The convergent validity of the scale was examined with the average variance extracted (AVE) and combined reliability (CR) values, while the divergent validity of the scale was examined by comparing the values with the correlation coefficients among the factors. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cr α) and combined reliability (CR) values were used to assess the scale's reliability. The scale was found to be valid and reliable in measuring classroom teachers' attitudes regarding illustrated children's books as a result of these examinations.

Keywords: Attitude scale, classroom teachers, illustrated children’s books


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ates, S. & Coban, G.S.A. (2022). A Validity and Reliability Study on Developing a Scale for Assessing Classroom Teachers' Attitudes Towards Illustrated Children’s Books . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(3), 222-237. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.11

Harvard
Ates, S. and Coban, G. (2022). A Validity and Reliability Study on Developing a Scale for Assessing Classroom Teachers' Attitudes Towards Illustrated Children’s Books . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(3), pp. 222-237.

Chicago 16th edition
Ates, Seyit and Gul Sebnem Altuner Coban (2022). "A Validity and Reliability Study on Developing a Scale for Assessing Classroom Teachers' Attitudes Towards Illustrated Children’s Books ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (3):222-237. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.461.11.

References
  1. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294170. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Applegate, A. J., & Applegate, M. D. (2004). The Peter effect: Reading habits and attitudes of preservice teachers. The Reading Teacher, 57(6), 554-563. [Google Scholar]
  3. Arıcı, A. F. (2005). İlköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerinin okuma durumları. Doktora Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ateş, S. (2021). İlkokulda çocuk edebiyatı. H. Akyol, A. Avşar Tuncay (Ed.), İlkokulda eğitim ve öğretim içinde (s. 333-358). Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  5. Baccus, A. A. (2004). Urban fourth and fifth grade teachers’ reading attitudes and efficacy beliefs: Relationships to reading instruction and to students’ reading attitudes and efficacy beliefs. United States: University of Maryland. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bağcı, H. (2007). Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının çocuk edebiyatına ve çocuk edebiyatı dersine yönelik tutumlarının değerlendirilmesi. Milli Eğitim Dergisi, 36(174), 116-134. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bayram, N. (2010). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesine Giriş Amos Uygulamaları. Bursa: Ezgi. [Google Scholar]
  8. Beyer, K., Bizub, J., Szabo, A., Heller, B., Kistner, A., Shawgo, E., & Zetts, C. (2015). Development and validation of the attitudes toward outdoor play scales for children. Social science & medicine, 133, 253-260. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bilgin, H. (2011). 5-6 Yaş çocuklarına yönelik 1990-2010 yılları arasında basılan resimli kitapların çocuğa görelik kavramına göre incelenmesi. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Marmara Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  10. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen and J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2001). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 10 for Windows. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  12. Byrne, B. M. (2011). Structural equation modeling with AMOS basic concepts, applications, and programming (Multivariate Applications Series). Routledge, New York. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2015). Psychological Testing and Assessment. E. Tavşancıl (Translation Ed.). Ankara: Nobel. [Google Scholar]
  14. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [Google Scholar]
  15. DeVellis, R. F. (2014). Ölçek geliştirme. T. Totan (Translation). Ankara: Nobel. [Google Scholar]
  16. Dockett, S., Perry, B., & Whitton, D. (2006). Picture storybooks and starting school. Early Child Development and Care, 176, 835–848. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430500293880. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Erkuş, A. (2003). Psikometri üzerine yazılar. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği. [Google Scholar]
  18. Erbaş, Y.H. (2019). Teaching diversity: Elementary school teachers' opinions and experiences on the use of multicultural children’s books. International Social Sciences Studies Journal, 5(29), 404-409. [Google Scholar]
  19. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  20. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal Of Marketing Research, 39-50. [Google Scholar]
  21. Gönen, M., & Veziroğlu, M. (2013). Çocuk edebiyatının genel hedefleri. M. Gönen (Ed.), Çocuk Edebiyatı (ss. 1-11) içinde. Ankara: Eğiten Kitap. [Google Scholar]
  22. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2014). Multivariate data analysis. Boston: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). New York: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  24. Handayani, L., Kosnin, A. M., Jiar, Y. K., & Imhonde, H. O. (2011). Validity and reliability of breastfeeding attitude scale in Indonesian population. Gender and Behaviour, 9(2), 4217-4223. https://doi.org/10.4314/gab.v9i2.72194. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. New York: Oxford University. [Google Scholar]
  26. Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. [Google Scholar]
  27. Işıtan, S., & Gönen, M. (2006). Resimli çocuk kitaplarının benlik kavramıyla ilgili konuları içermesi yönünden incelenmesi. II. Ulusal Çocuk ve Gençlik Edebiyatı Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitabı, 413-420. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kalaycı, Ş. (2010). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri. Ankara:Asil. [Google Scholar]
  29. Karagül, S. (2020). Çocuk edebiyatına yönelik tutum ölçeği geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Çocuk Edebiyat ve Dil Eğitimi Dergisi, 3(2), 203-226. https://doi.org/10.47935/ceded.836154. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Kılıç. A. (2007). Sınıf öğretmeni yetiştirme programında yer alan derslerin öğrenilme düzeyleri. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 6(19). 136-145. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kline, P. (1986). A handbook of test construction: Introduction to psychometric design. New York: Methuen. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford. [Google Scholar]
  33. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., Artelt, C., Baumert, J., & Peschar, J. L. (2006). OECD’s Brief Self-Report Measure of Educational Psychology’s Most Useful Affective Constructs: Cross-Cultural, Psychometric Comparisons across 25 Countries. International Journal of Testing, 6(4), 311-360. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327574ijt0604_1. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. McQuitty, S. (2004). Statistical power and structural equation models in business research. Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 175-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00301-0. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Mertler, C. A., & Vannatta, R.A. (2005) Advanced and Multivariate Statistical Methods: Practical Application and Interpretation. Los Angeles: Pyrczak. [Google Scholar]
  36. Myette, S. (2006). Finding a great read: Book selection strategies for sixth grade silent reading an abstract. Master of Arts in Education, Pacific Lutheran University, United States. [Google Scholar]
  37. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric testing. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  38. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  39. Oğuzkan, A. F. (2006). Yerli ve yabancı yazarlardan örneklerle çocuk edebiyatı. Ankara: Anı. [Google Scholar]
  40. Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS survival manual. Maidenhead: Open University. [Google Scholar]
  41. Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  42. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H, & Müller, H.  (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74. [Google Scholar]
  43. Sever, S. (2008). Çocuk ve edebiyat. Ankara: Tudem. [Google Scholar]
  44. Smith, M. B. (1947). The personal setting of public opinions: A study of attitudes toward Russia.In Fisbein,M. (Eds.). Attitude theory and measurement. New York: Pergamon. [Google Scholar]
  45. Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.017. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenirlik ve geçerlilik. Ankara: Seçkin. [Google Scholar]
  47. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5. edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  48. Tavşancıl, E. (2005). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi. Ankara: Nobel. [Google Scholar]
  49. Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington: American Psychological Association. [Google Scholar]
  50. Vogel, T. & Wanke, M. (2016). Attitudes and attitude change. NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  51. Von Sprecken, D., & Krashen, S. (1998). Do students read during sustained silent reading? California Reader, 32(1), 11-13. [Google Scholar]