International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2022, Vol. 17(3) 57-81

Written Expression Skills of Both Monoliterate, and Emergent Bilingual Primary School Students: A Comparison with Monolingual Students

Yusuf Kızıltaş

pp. 57 - 81   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2022.461.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2204-30-0002

Published online: September 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 63  |  Number of Download: 341


Abstract

Many students learn Turkish as a second language in Turkey. These students, whose first language is Kurdish, learn Turkish at a certain level before starting school. As a result, these students become emergent bilinguals along with school life. On the other hand, some of these students almost do not use Kurdish in their lives and wholly turn to Turkish. Ultimately, all students whose first language is Kurdish continue their education in the same environment with students whose first language is Turkish. As a result, these children lag behind students whose first language is Turkish in many respects. They even lag behind students whose dominant language is Turkish and Kurdish as their first language. This research it is aimed to reveal the differences between the two student groups in the context of written expression skills. The effect of the dominant language difference, preschool education status and socioeconomic level on the written expression skills of primary school students were examined. The research group of 428 primary school fourth-grade students (girl: 201, boy:227) was determined by criterion sampling method. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the written expression skills of the students whose dominant language is Kurdish remained at a deficient level, and they made more spelling mistakes

Keywords: Monoliterate Bilingual, Emergent Bilingual, Primary School Students, Written Expression Skills


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kiziltas, Y. (2022). Written Expression Skills of Both Monoliterate, and Emergent Bilingual Primary School Students: A Comparison with Monolingual Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(3), 57-81. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2022.461.3

Harvard
Kiziltas, Y. (2022). Written Expression Skills of Both Monoliterate, and Emergent Bilingual Primary School Students: A Comparison with Monolingual Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(3), pp. 57-81.

Chicago 16th edition
Kiziltas, Yusuf (2022). "Written Expression Skills of Both Monoliterate, and Emergent Bilingual Primary School Students: A Comparison with Monolingual Students ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 17 (3):57-81. doi:10.29329/epasr.2022.461.3.

References
  1. Abdel-rahman Arman, İ. M., Saleh Naser, I. A., & Ismail Nafi, J. S. (2017). Student's difficulties in writing expression in the departments of English and Arabic at Al-Quds University. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(1), 67-90. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.221380. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Ağırman, F. (2019). İki dilli ortaokul öğrencilerinin Türkçe öğrenimi üzerine bir değerlendirme [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Nevşehir. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahmed Suliman, M. M. (2014). Socioeconomic factors affecting English socioeconomic factors affecting English. Sudan. [Google Scholar]
  4. Alfaqiri, M. (2018). English second language writing difficulties and challenges among Saudi Arabian language learners. Journal for the Study of English Linguistics, 6(1), 24-36. https://doi.org/10.5296/jsel.v6i1.12740 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Al-Gharabally, M. (2015). The writing difficulties faced by L2 learners and how to minimize them. International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research , 3(5), 42-49. https://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/The-writing-difficulties-faced-by-L2-learners-and-how-to-minimize-them.pdf [Google Scholar]
  6. Anvar, M., & Ahmed, M. (2016). Students difficulties in learning writing skillsin second language. Sci.Int.(Lahore), 28(4), 735-739. http://www.sci-int.com/pdf/636371044369572552.pdf [Google Scholar]
  7. Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative research methods a synopsis approach. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Kuwait Chapter), 6(10), 40-47. https://doi.org/ 10.12816/0040336 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Arıcı, A. F., & Ungan, S. (2008). İlköğretim ikinci Kademe öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım çalışmalarının bazı yönlerden değerlendirilmesi. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 20, 317-328. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/55457 [Google Scholar]
  9. Aronoff, M., & Rees-Miller, J. (2007). The handbook of linguistics. Oxford. [Google Scholar]
  10. Asrağ, A. C. (2009). İlköğretim birinci kademe öğrencilerinin ana dil öğrenim probemleri ve sınıf iklimine etkisi: Türkçe konuşma problemi Şanlıurfa örneği [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Konya. [Google Scholar]
  11. Babayiğit, S. (2014). Contributions of word-level and verbal skills to written expression: comparison of learners who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2). Reading and Writing, 27, 1207–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9482-z. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Bachore, M. M. (2014). Learners’ success in mother tongue based classroom instruction and the attitudes and perceptions of school communities. International Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(2), 118-135. https://doi.org/10.4471/rise.2014.09. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. Bartscher, M. A., Lawler, K. E., Ramirez, A. J., & Schinault, K. S. (2001). Improving student's writing ability through journals and creative writing exercises. Chicago. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED455525.pdf [Google Scholar]
  14. Brisk, M. E. (2011). Learning to write in the second language: K-5 from. In E. Hinkel, Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 40-56). London. [Google Scholar]
  15. Cai, G. (2004). Beyond bad writing: Teaching English composition to Chinese ESL students. 12 27, 2020 https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED364104.pdf [Google Scholar]
  16. Catts, H. W., Gillispie, M., Leonard, L. B., Kail, R. V., & Miller, C. A. (2012). The role of speed of processing, rapid naming and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(6), 509–524. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194020350060301 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Chakraverty, A., & Gautum, K. (2000). Dynamics of write. Form, 38(3). [Google Scholar]
  18. Chokwe, J. M. (2013). Factors impacting academic writing skills of English second language students. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(14), 377-384. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n14p377. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Coşkun, İ. (2006). İlköğretim 5.sınıf öğrencilerinin kompozisyon yazma becerileri üzerine bir araştırma. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  20. Coşkun, İ. (2010). İlköğretim 4. sııf öğrencilerinin okuduğunu anlama ve yazılı anlatım becerilerindeki gelişimin birbirlerini etkileme durumu: Eylem araştırması. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  21. Crone, D., & Whitehurst, G. (1999). Age and schooling effects on emergent literacy and early reading skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4). https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.4.604 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 934–945. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.934. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Çabuk, B., Er, B., Karageyik, S., & Tokgöz, K. (2018). Okul öncesi dönemdeki iki dilli olan ve olmayan çocukların okuma yazmaya hazırlık becerileriyle ilgili öğretmen algılarının incelenmesi. Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Entitüsü Dergisi, 4, 12-43. http://johut.karabuk.edu.tr/Makaleler/189256464_2.%20Burcu%20%c3%87abuk.pdf [Google Scholar]
  24. Çelik, M. E. (2012). İlköğretim sekizinci sınıf öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım becerilerinin farklı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Turkish Studies, 7(1), 727-743. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.3202 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Çetin, Ö. Ş., Gülhan, M., & Katrancı, M. (2018). A Study on the effect of pre-school education on early literacy skills. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(5), 201-221. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2018.05.014. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Deniz, K. (2003). Yazılı anlatım becerileri bakımından köy ve kent beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin durumu. TÜBAR-XIII, 233-255. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/156770 [Google Scholar]
  27. Derince, M. Ş. (2012). Ana dili temelli çok dilli ve çok diyalektli dinamik eğitim:Kürt öğrencilerin eğitiminde kullanılabilecek modeller. Diyarbakır. [Google Scholar]
  28. Doğan, H. (2017). İki dilli öğrencilerin Türkçe yazılı anlatım becerilerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik bir araştırma-Şanlıurfa örneği [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  29. Doğan, Y., & Müldür, M. (2014). İlköğretim 7. sınıf öğrencilerine verilen yazma eğitiminin öğrencilerin hikâye yazma becerisine etkisi. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 10(1), 49-65. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/161040 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dölek, O., & Hamzadayı, E. (2018). Comparison of writing skills of students of different socioeconomic status. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(6), 117-131. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2018.179.9 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2003). Language proficiency and reading ability in first- and second-language learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(1), 78-103. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.38.1.4 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Düzen, N. (2017). Ana dili Türkçe olan ve olmayan okul öncesi öğrencilerinin Türkçe okuryazarlık becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  33. Ellis, R. (1997). Studies in second language acqusition. The United States: Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001058. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Erden, G., Kurdoğlu, F., & Uslu, R. (2002). İlköğretim okullarına devam eden Türk çocukların sınıf düzeylerine göre okuma hızı ve yazım hataları normlarının geliştirilmesi. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 5-13. [Google Scholar]
  35. Erdoğan, Ö. (2011). Relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(3), 1499-1510. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ936331.pdf [Google Scholar]
  36. Eryaman, M. Y. (2008). Writing, method and  hermeneutics: Towards an existential pedagogy. Elementary Education Online, 7(1), 2-14. [Google Scholar]
  37. Fareed, M., Ashraf, A., & Bilal, M. (2016). ESL learners’ writing skills: Problems, factors and suggestions. Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 4(2), 81-92. https://doi.org/10.20547/jess0421604201 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Farooq, M. S., Ul-Hassan, M. U., & Wahid, S. (2012). Opinion of second language learners about writing difficulties in English language. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, 27(1), 183-194.http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/11.%20Dr.%20Muhammad%20Shahid%20Farooq_January-June%202012.pdf [Google Scholar]
  39. Farver, J. M., Nakamoto, J., & Lonigan, C. (2007). Assessing preschoolers' emergent literacy skills in English and Spanish with the get ready to read screening tool. Annals of Dyslexia, 57(2), 161-178. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23764721 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fishman, J. A. (1976). Bilingual education: What and why? In J. Alatis, & K. Twaddell, English as second language in bilingual education (pp. 263-271). Washington, D.C. [Google Scholar]
  41. Freeman, Y., Freeman, D., & Mercuri, S. (2003). Helping middle and high school age English language learners achieve academic success. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 1(1), 110-122 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gillespie, A., & Graham, S. (2014). HotSheet 5: Effective practices for written expression. 12 25, 2020 https://www.teachingld.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/DLD_HotSheet5.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  43. García, O., Kleifgen, J. A., & Falchi, L. (2008). From English language learners to emergent bilinguals. New York. [Google Scholar]
  44. Gort, M. (2006). Strategic codeswitching, interliteracy, and other phenomena of emergent bilingual writing: Lessons from first grade dual language classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 6(3), 323-354. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798406069796 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Göçer, A. (2013). Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarına göre yazma becerisinin ediniminde ve gelişiminde etkili olan unsurlar. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(24), 1-14. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/182911 [Google Scholar]
  46. Güzel, A. (2014). İki dilli Türk çocukların Türkçe öğretimi. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  47. Haykır, H. A. (2012). İlköğretim 6, 7 ve 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin okuduğunu anlama becerisi ile yazılı anlatım becerisi arasındaki ilişki. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Kırşehir. [Google Scholar]
  48. Hickey, P. (2016). 'They always keep us in line': Neoliberalism and elementary emergent bilinguals. The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 14, 14-40.http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/14-2-1.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  49. Husna, L. (2013). An Analysis of students’ writing skill in descriptive text at grade XI IPA 1 of MAN 2 padang. Journal English Language Teaching, 1(2), 1-16. http://ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/elt/article/view/4555/3600 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hussein, A., & Mohammad, M. (2011). Negative L1 impact on L2 writing. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1, 184-195. http://www.ijhssnet.com/view.php?u=http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_1_No_18_Special_Issue/22.pdf [Google Scholar]
  51. Hyland, K. (2003). Second language writing. http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam041/2003041957.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  52. Jun, Z. (2008). A Comprehensive review of studies on second language writing . HKBU Papers in Applied Language Studies, 12, 89-123. http://ibaroudy.ir/bookcontent/Baroudy%27s%20Work%20Cited%2015.pdf [Google Scholar]
  53. Kalaycı, Ş. (2018). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri. İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  54. Kan, M. O., & Yeşiloğlu, F. (2017). İlk okuma yazma öğretiminde izlenen aşamalarda iki dilli çocukların yaşadıkları sorunlar ve bu sorunlara dair çözüm önerileri. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(3), 519-533. https://doi.org/10.16916/aded.331270 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Kan, M., & Uçar Hatay, F. (2017). İki dilli ilkokul öğrencilerinin dikte ve yazma becerisi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(2), 217-225. https://doi.org/10.16916/aded.287872 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Kartal, H., Balantekin, Y., & Bilgin, A. (2016). The ımportance of early childhood education and school starting age in the reading-writing learning process. Participatory Educational Research (PER) , 3(1), 79-101. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.16.05.3.1. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Kıvrak, D. (2019). Türkçeyi ikinci dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin Türkçe yeterlik algı düzeyleri ve Türkçe yazılı anlatımlarındaki yazım yanlışları  [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Muğla. [Google Scholar]
  58. Kızıltaş, Y. (2021). İki dilli öğrencilerin ikinci dil ediniminde etkili olan faktörler ve dezavantajlı gruplara dönüşmeleri: Kuramsal ve derleme bir çalışma. Trakya Eğitim Dergisi, 11(2), 1012-1036. https://doi.org/10.24315/tred.775100 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Kim, W. (2019). Secondary long-term emergent bilingual students’ educational needs. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 10(1), 3133-3139.https://infonomics-society.org/wp-content/uploads/Secondary-Long-term-Emergent-Bilingual-Students-Educational-Needs.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  60. Kong, N., & Hurless, N. (2021). Vocabulary interventions for young emergent bilingual children: A Systematic review of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1-13.https://doi.org/10.1177/02711214211027625. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  61. Koşan, Y. (2015). Okul öncesi eğitimin iki dilli çocukların okula hazırbulunuşluk etkisinin incelenmesi  [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  62. Liddicoat, A. (1991). Bilingualism: An Introduction. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404847.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  63. López, F., & Santibañez, L. (2018) Teacher preparation for emergent bilingual students: Implications of evidence for policy. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 26(36), 1-47. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.26.2866 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  64. McCarthey, S. J., Guo, Y. H., & Cummins, S. (2015). Understanding changes in elementary Mandarin students’ L1 and L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing , 14(2), 71-104. https://doi.org/10.1016 / j.jslw.2005.05.003. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Menken, K., & Klyen, T. (2010). The long-term impact of subtractive schooling in the educational experiences of secondary English language learners. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(4), 399-417. [Google Scholar]
  66. Musyahda, L. (2018). Revisiting strategic competence: Implications for multimodal language learning. dvances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), 228, 278-281. https://doi.org/10.2991/klua-18.2018.41 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  67. Nasir, L., Naqvi, S. M., & Bhamani, S. (2013). Enhancing students' creative writing skills: An action research project. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 6(2), 1-6 https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1053632.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  68. Negari, G. (2012). A study on strategy instruction EFL learners’ writing. International Journal of English Linguistics, 1(2), 299-307. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v1n2p299 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  69. Ng, E. (2013). Formulation processes and metacognition of monolingual, bilingual and biliterate writers: From thinking to writing in English and Chinese. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Sydney. [Google Scholar]
  70. Ng, E. (2015). Bilingualism, biliteracy and cognitive effects: A review paper. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 10, 93-128. https://faculty.edfac.usyd.edu.au/projects/usp_in_tesol/pdf/volume10/Article04.pdf [Google Scholar]
  71. Ng, E. (2020). Formulation processes of monolingual,bilingual, and biliterate writers: Effects of biliteracy. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(3), 213-232. https://doi.org/10.29140/ajal.v3n3.353. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  72. Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge. [Google Scholar]
  73. Olsen, L., & Jaramillo, A. (1999). Turning the tide of exclusion: A guide for educators and advocates for immigrant students. Oakland, CA. [Google Scholar]
  74. Ortiz, A., Fránquiz, M., & & Lara, G. (2020). Applying an intersectionality lens to education policy and practice for emergent bilinguals. Bilingual Research Journal, 43(4), 357-361.https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2020.1896310. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  75. Özdemir, H. (2016). Ortaokul beşinci sınıfta okuyan iki dilli öğrencilerin yazma becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Van. [Google Scholar]
  76. Pettigrew, E. J. (2009). A study of the impact of socioeconomic status on student achievement in a rural east tennessee school system. Tennessee. https://dc.etsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3196&context=etd [Google Scholar]
  77. Poorebrahim, F., Tahririan, M. H., & Afzali, K. (2017). Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ use of writing metacognitive strategies and writing performance. Applied Research on English Language, 6(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.22108/ARE.2017.21323. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  78. Rao, P. S. (2019). The significance of writing skills in ELL environment. Int.J.Eng.Lang.Lit&Trans.Studies, 9(3), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.5958/2249-7137.2019.00035.1. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  79. Restrepo, M. A., & Harmon, M. T. (2008). Addressing emergent literacy skills in English-language learners. ASHA Leader, 13(13), https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR1.13132008.10. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  80. Rousseeuw, P. J. (1987). Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. Journal of computational and applied mathematics, 20, 53-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0427(87)90125-7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  81. Salameh, W., & Sathakathulla, A, A. (2012). The impact of social and economic factors on students’ English language performance in EFL classrooms in Dubai public secondary schools. https://doi.org/10.5539/ells.v8n4p110 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  82. Sarı, M. (2001). İki dilli çocukların çözümleme yöntemi ile okuma yazma öğrenirken karşılaştıkları güçlükler  [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Adana. [Google Scholar]
  83. Safa, J, A. (2018). A Brief overview of key issues in second language writing teaching and research. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 6(2), 15-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.2p.15 [Google Scholar]
  84. Saydı, T. (2013). Avrupa birliği vizyonuyla ikidillilik, çokdillilik ve eğitimi. Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 28(6), 269-283. https://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com/articles/bilingualism-plurilingualisme-and-its-education-in-the-vision-of-theeuropean-union.pdf [Google Scholar]
  85. Sholikah, M., Yufiarti., & Yetti, E. (2019). Early childhood literacy skills: The effect of socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, and social skills. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), 9(1), 3769-3775. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijitee.A4807.119119 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  86. Sokip. (2020). Overcoming the problem of learning foreign language skills in the classroom. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 723-729. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080246. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  87. Sugiharto, S. (2015). İmpacts of bilinguality on students 'academic writing skill:Additional evidence. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 63-69.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509%2Fijal.v5i1.832. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  88. Sukamolson, S. (2017). Fundamentals of quantitative research. https://www.academia.edu/5847530/Fundamentals_of_quantitative_research  [Google Scholar]
  89. Susar Kırmızı, F, Boztaş, H., Salgut, E., Adıgüzel, D., & Koç, A. (2019). Ana dili Türkçe olmayan öğrencilerde okul öncesi eğitimin ilk okuma yazma sürecine etkisi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (PAU Journal of Education), 48, 105-129. https://doi.org/10.9779/pauefd.509817. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  90. Susar Kırmızı, F., Özcan, E., & Şencan, D. (2016). Türkçenin az konuşulduğu bölgelerde ilk okuma yazma sürecinde karşılaşılan sorunlara ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Uluslararası Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür Eğitim Dergisi, 5(1), 412-445. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/227862 [Google Scholar]
  91. Tabak, G., & Topuzkanamış, E. (2014). An analysis of writing dispositions of 6th grade students in terms of different variables. Mevlana International Journal of Education, 4(2), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.13054/mije.14.15.4.2 [Google Scholar]
  92. Tavşanlı, Ö. F., & Bulunuz, M. (2017). The development of the written expression skills of a first grade student at home, school an duniversity program: A case study. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(4), 20-48. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.321561. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  93. Temel, S., & Katrancı, M. (2019). İlkokul öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım becerileri, yazmaya yönelik tutumları ve yazma kaygıları arasındaki ilişki. AVRASYA Uluslararası AraĢtırmalar Dergisi ,7(17), 322 – 356. https://doi.org/10.33692/avrasyad.590688 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  94. Topcu, Z. (2012). Okul öncesi eğitimin ilköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okula uyum ve Türkçe dil becerilerine etkisi. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  95. Turkish Constitution. (1982). Resmi Gazete Kanun No.: 2709 Accept Date: 7.11.1982. [Google Scholar]
  96. Uğur, N. (2017). Ana dili eğitim dilinden farklı olan öğrenci ve velilerin yaşadıkları sorunların çözümlenmesi. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  97. Van Rensberg, W., & Lamberti, P. (2013). The language of learning and teaching. In S. Gravett, & H. Geyser, Teaching and learning in higher education. Pretoria. [Google Scholar]
  98. Yazıcı, Z. (1999). Almanya ve Türkiye’de anaokuluna devam eden 60-76 aylar arasındaki Türk çocuklarının dil gelişimi ile okuma olgunluğu arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  99. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  100. Yılmaz, M. (2012). İlköğretim birinci kademe öğrencilerinin kompozisyon yazma becerilerini geliştirmede planlı yazma modelinin önemi. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(19), 321-330. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/183064 [Google Scholar]
  101. Yılmaz, O. (2011). İlköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım becerilerinin çeşitli değişkenlere açısından incelenmesi: Erzincan örneği. Erzincan Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(2), 167-178. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/67839 [Google Scholar]
  102. Yılmaz, F., & Şekerci, H. (2016). Ana dil sorunsalı: Sınıf öğretmenlerinin deneyimlerine göre ilkokul öğrencilerinin yaşadıkları sorunlar. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi - ENAD, 4(1), 47-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/issn.2148- 2624.1.4c1s3m [Google Scholar]
  103. Yiğit, V. (2009). Ses temelli cümle yöntemi ile ilkokuma yazma öğretim sürecinde Karşılaşılan güçlükler ve bu güçlüklerle baş etme stratejilerinin belirlenmesi (Şırnak İli Örneği). [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Adana. [Google Scholar]