International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2021, Vol. 16(3) 336-349

Development of the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-school Children

Hakan Şahin

pp. 336 - 349   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2009-18-0004.R2

Published online: September 20, 2021  |   Number of Views: 217  |  Number of Download: 658


This research was aimed to develop the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-School children. A descriptive research was conducted with two study groups. The scale is based on teachers' assessment for preschoolers aged 3-6. During the development process of the form, the theoretical structure was examined and expert opinion was take for the prepared draft. The descriptive research model was used in the research. The research has two study groups. Within the scope of the research, there were 250 preschool teachers in the first group and 260 in the second group. The construct validity was determined as well based on AFA and DFA. The corrected item-total correlations and Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient were calculated in order to determine the reliability of the answers given to the scale items. The KMO and Barlett test have showed that the factor analysis is suitable for the data set. It was determined that the items in the scale has clarified 48% of the total variance. With the data acquired as a result of the analyzes, it was determined that the 21 items showed a one-dimensional structure. The Cronbach ‘s alpha coefficient for the scale was determined as 0.939. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the items in the final form of the scale vary between 0.483 and 0.744.  As for the factor loading values of the items it differs between 0.38 and 0.41. Since the T value is found to be significant it showed that there were a significant relationships between the observed and latent variables.  As a result of the calculations, a valid, reliable and useful measurement tool that can be used in the literature was developed, based on the teacher’s assessment it is hoped that the scale will fill the gap in this field.

Keywords: Preschool, Anxiety, Teachers’ Assessment

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sahin, H. (2021). Development of the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-school Children . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(3), 336-349. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2021.373.17

Sahin, H. (2021). Development of the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-school Children . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(3), pp. 336-349.

Chicago 16th edition
Sahin, Hakan (2021). "Development of the Teacher Report Form of Anxiety in Pre-school Children ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 16 (3):336-349. doi:10.29329/epasr.2021.373.17.

  1. Achenbach, T. (1991). Manual for the Teacher’s Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont. [Google Scholar]
  2. Bayer, J. K., Sanson, A. V., & Hemphill, S. A. (2006). Children’s moods, fears, and worries: Development of an early childhood parent questionnaire. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 14(1), 41-49. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Bittner, A., Egger, H. L., Erkanli, A., Jane Costello, E., Foley, D. L., & Angold, A. (2007). What do childhood anxiety disorders predict? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,48(12), 1174-1183. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Broeren, S., & Muris, P. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of two new parent-rating scales for measuring anxiety symptoms in young Dutch children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(6), 949–958. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2014). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (Scientific research methods). Pegem Publications. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). SPSS and LISREL applications for multivariate statistics for social sciences. Pegem Academy. [Google Scholar]
  7. Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837-44. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S. J., & Spence, S. H. (2010). The assessment of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: The revised preschool anxiety scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 9(3), 400-409. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry, 47(3), 313–337. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 581-586. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Güler, M. (2016). Revised preschool anxiety scale validity and reliability study of the preschool for 4-6 year olds. (Publication No: 10128398) [Master’s thesis, Adnan Menderes University. [Google Scholar]
  12. Güvenir, T., Özbek, A., Baykara, B., Arkar, H., Şentürk, B., & İncekaş, S. (2008). Güçler ve güçlükler anketi'nin (GGA) Türkçe uyarlamasinin psikometrik özellikleri [Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Journal of Child and Youth Mental Health, 15(2), 65–74. [Google Scholar]
  13. Heiser, N. A., Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2009). Differentiating social phobia from shyness. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(4), 469 476. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., & Biederman, J. (2002). Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(3), 161–172. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Kalayci, S. (2009). SPSS Applied Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Ankara: Asil Publication. [Google Scholar]
  16.  Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd Ed.). In Structural Equation Modeling. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Mian, N. D., Godoy, L., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Carter, A. S. (2012). Patterns of anxiety symptoms in toddlers and preschool-age children: Evidence of early differentiation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(1), 102–110. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, S. (2003). Internalizing and Externalizing Problems as Correlates of Self-Reported Attachment Style and Perceived Parental Rearing in Normal Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(2), 171–183. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Muris, P., & Rachman, S. J. (2007). Normal and Abnormal Fear and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents (1st Edition). In Normal and Abnormal Fear and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. Elsevier Science. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety Disorders During Childhood and Adolescence: Origins and Treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311-41. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Seven, S. (2008). Child mental health. Pegem Academy. [Google Scholar]
  22. Seven, S., & Akif İnci, M. (2016). Social Behaviors in Nuclear and Extended families Children Age 6 to 11 – A Longitudinal Study with Turkish Sample. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(2), 81-86. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Spence, S. H., Rapee, R., McDonald, C., & Ingram, M. (2001). The structure of anxiety symptoms among preschoolers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(11),1293-1316. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). In New York: Harper and Row. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Uğraş, S., Demiray, Ç., Mutluer, T., & Coşkun, M. (2018). Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Anksiyete Ölçeğinin Türkçe Geçerlik Güvenirlik Çalışması. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi, 25(1), 63–76. [Google Scholar]
  26. Tavşancıl, E., (2020). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi. Nobel Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  27. Yurduşen, S., Erol, N., & Gençöz, T. (2013). The effects of parental attitudes and mothers’ psychological well-being on the emotional and behavioral problems of their preschool children. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(1):68-75. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28.   [Google Scholar]