International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2024, Vol. 19(2) 22-41

Relationship between Democratic Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Implementing Cooperative Learning: A Cross-sectional Study of Pre-service Science Teachers

Özgecan Kırık

pp. 22 - 41   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.2   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2404-30-0001

Published online: June 30, 2024  |   Number of Views: 5  |  Number of Download: 18


Abstract

Pedagogical methods shape students' grasp of democracy. Cooperative learning, by fostering democratic values in classrooms, empowers students for active civic participation.  This approach is seen as ideal, suggesting pre-service teachers using it will hold positive democratic attitudes. This study seeks to determine how attitudes towards democracy and implementing cooperative learning differ among pre-service science teachers at various grade levels (n=207), and how these attitudes correlate with each other. Additionally, the study aims to investigate how the relationship between attitudes towards democracy and implementing cooperative learning changes across grade levels. A cross-sectional design was employed. Data was collected using the Collaborative Learning Scale to measure the attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning and Democratic Perceptions and Attitudes Scale to measure democratic attitudes. The findings revealed that pre-service teachers’ year of training has no influence on their democratic attitudes and their attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning. However, participants consistently exhibited strong democratic attitudes and attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning, with a non-significant increase across grade levels. These findings suggest a widespread support for democratic principles in future classrooms and a belief in the value of cooperative learning as an instructional approach and their high expectations of success when using this method. Furthermore, there is a strong, positive correlation between democratic attitudes and attitudes towards implementing cooperative learning at all grade levels. This means that pre-service teachers who value democratic principles in the classroom are more likely to view cooperative learning strategies favorably. These findings highlight a strong link between pre-service science teachers' democratic values and their openness to using cooperative learning. The correlation coefficient increases with higher training years. As pre-service science teachers progress through their training program, the focus on democratic education practices might increase.

Keywords: Democratic attitudes, Cooperative learning, Pre-service science teachers


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kirik, O. (2024). Relationship between Democratic Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Implementing Cooperative Learning: A Cross-sectional Study of Pre-service Science Teachers . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 19(2), 22-41. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.2

Harvard
Kirik, O. (2024). Relationship between Democratic Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Implementing Cooperative Learning: A Cross-sectional Study of Pre-service Science Teachers . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 19(2), pp. 22-41.

Chicago 16th edition
Kirik, Ozgecan (2024). "Relationship between Democratic Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Implementing Cooperative Learning: A Cross-sectional Study of Pre-service Science Teachers ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 19 (2):22-41. doi:10.29329/epasr.2024.1046.2.

References
  1. Abramczyk, A., & Jurkowski, S. (2020). Cooperative learning as an evidence-based teaching strategy: what teachers know, believe, and how they use it. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(3), 296–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2020.1733402 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Abrami, P. C., Poulsen, C., & Chambers, B. (2004). Teacher motivation to implement an educational innovation: Factors differentiating users and non-users of cooperative learning. Educational Psychology, 24(2), 201-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341032000160146 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Apple, M., & Beane, J. (2007). Democratic schools: Lessons for a powerful education. Heinemann. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bay, E., Gündogdu, K., & Kaya, H. I. (2010). The perceptions of prospective teachers on the democratic aspects of the constructivist learning environment. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8(2), 617-642. [Google Scholar]
  5. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. Continuum. [Google Scholar]
  6. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2018). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (25. Baskı). Pegem A Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  7. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  8. Cunat, M. (1996). “Vision, vitality and values: Advocating the democratic classroom. In L. E. Beyer (Ed.), Creating democratic classrooms: The struggle to ıntegrate theory and practice (pp. 127–149). Teachers College Press. [Google Scholar]
  9. Çankaya, D., & Seçkin, O. (2004, May 20-21). Demokratik değerlerin benimsenmesi açısından öğretmen ve öğretmen adaylarının görüş ve tutumları. Uluslararası Demokrasi Eğitimi Sempozyumu, Çanakkale, Türkiye. [Google Scholar]
  10. Çelik, R., Koca, F., & Dadandi, İ. (2022). The role of self-efficacy and educational beliefs in democratic values: the case of Turkish pre-service teachers. Athens Journal of Education, 9(4), 559-574. https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.9-4-2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Çinici, A., & Demir, Y. (2010). İşbirlikli Tahmin-Gözlem-Açıklama (TGA) aktivitelerinin 9. sinif öğrencilerinin demokratik tutumlari üzerine etkisi. Bayburt Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(1), 13–23. [Google Scholar]
  12. Demir, T., & Arslan, A. (2021). Öğretmenlerin yansıtıcı düşünme eğilimleri, demokratik davranışları ve 21. yüzyıl öğreten becerilerinin CHAID analizi yöntemi ile incelenmesi. Karaelmas Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(1), 184-203. [Google Scholar]
  13. Demirsöz, E. S. (2010). Yaratıcı dramanın öğretmen adaylarının demokratik tutumlar, bilişüstü farkındalıkları ve duygusal zekâ yeterliliklerine etkisi [Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi]. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi. [Google Scholar]
  14. Dilekmen, M. (1999). Grupla psikolojik danışmanın öğretmen adaylarının demokratik tutum ve empatik beceri düzeylerine etkisi. [Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi]. Atatürk Üniversitesi. [Google Scholar]
  15. Duman, B. (2010). Correlation between the graduate-students' perception of educational philosophies and their democratic attitudes. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 5830–5834. [Google Scholar]
  16. Erbil, D. G., & Kocabaş, A. (2018). Cooperative learning as a democratic learning method. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 32(1), 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2017.1385548 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Erdogan, E. (2021). The impact of digital storytelling on the academic achievement and democratic attitude of primary school students. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(1), 427-448. https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2020.334.22 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Ferguson-Patrick, K. (2012, December 2-6). Developing an inclusive democratic classroom “in action” through cooperative learning [Conference presentation]. Australian Association for Research in Education (NJ1), Joint Australian Association for Research in Education and Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association Conference (AARE-APERA 2012) World Education Research Association (WERA) Focal Meeting, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. [Google Scholar]
  19. Ferguson-Patrick, K. (2014). Establishing a democracy classroom: Cooperative learning and good teaching. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Newcastle. [Google Scholar]
  20. Ferguson-Patrick, K. (2022). Developing a democratic classroom and a democracy stance: Cooperative learning case studies from England and Sweden. Education 3-13, 50(3), 389–403. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2020.1853195 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Florian, L., & K. Black-Hawkins. (2011). Exploring inclusive pedagogy. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 813– 828. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411926.2010.501096 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Genç, S.Z. & Kalafat, T. (2007). Öğretmen adaylarının demokratik tutumları ile problem çözme becerilerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(2), 10–22.  [Google Scholar]
  23. Genç, S.Z. & Kalafat, T. (2008). Öğretmen adaylarının demokratik tutumları ile empatik becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi üzerine bir araştırma. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 19, 211–222. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gozler, A. (2021). Determination of democracy awareness levels of teacher candidates, International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 13(2), 592-603. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2021.02.018 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Huang, Y.-H. (2016). Exploring teachers’ motivation for implementing cooperative learning using Expectancy-Value Theory. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 7(3), 2852–2856. https://doi.org/10.20533/ijcdse.2042.6364.2016.0388 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. İnceoğlu, M. (2010). Tutum, algı, iletişim (5. baskı). Beykent Üniversitesi Yayınevi [Google Scholar]
  27. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1994). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning. Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  28. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (2000). Cooperative learning, values, and culturally plural classrooms. In M. Leicester, C. Modgill, & S. Modgill (Eds.), Values, the classroom, and cultural diversity (pp. 15–28). Cassell PLC [Google Scholar]
  29. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365–379. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09339057 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (2016). Cooperative learning and teaching citizenship in democracies. International Journal of Educational Research, 76, 162–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.11.009 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8.51. Scientific Software. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kadan, Ö.F. (2022). Pre-service Turkish language teachers’ opinions on cooperative learning. Route Educational & Social Science Journal, 70, 141-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.3108 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kesici, Ş. (2008). Democratic teacher beliefs according to the teacher's gender and locus of control. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(1). [Google Scholar]
  34. Kılıçoğlu, G., & Şentürk, I. (2021). Investigating relationship between democratic attitudes and social justice beliefs of pre-service teachers. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(3), 245-271. https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2021.373.13 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Kirschenbaum, H. (1994). One-hundred ways to enhance values and morality in schools and youth settings. Allyn & Bacon.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Knight, T. (2001). Longitudinal development of educational theory: Democracy and the classroom. Journal of Education Policy, 16(3), 249–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930110041384 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Köse, E., (2009). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin demokrasi anlayışlarının değerlendirilmesi (Erzurum ili örneği). Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 17(3), 871–880.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Kumral, O. (2014). Predicting democratic attitudes and educational philosophies of student teachers. International Journal of Social Science & Education, 4(2), 359-368. [Google Scholar]
  39. Küçükahmet, L. (1989). Demokrasi eğitiminde boyutlar ve sorunları demokrasi için eğitim. TED Yayınları. [Google Scholar]
  40. Malazonia, D., Lobzhanidze, S., Maglakelidze, S., Chiabrishvili, N., Giunashvili, Z., & Natsvlishvili, N. (2023). The role of collaborative learning in the education for democratic citizenship (case of Georgia). Cogent Education, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2023.2167299 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Ministry of National Education (MoNE) (2018). Science curriculum (Primary and middle school grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8). Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  42. Mitakidou, S., & Tamoutseli, K. (2011). Engaging learners in cooperative learning through environmental and cross-cultural activities. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 13(1), 5–18. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10099-011-0001-5 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Oğuz, A. (2011). Öğretmen adaylarının demokratik değerleri ile öğretme ve öğrenme anlayışları. Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi, 9(22), 139-160. [Google Scholar]
  44. Onuray Egilmez, H., Egilmez, Ö., & Engür, D. (2018). Democratic perception and attitudes of pre-service music teachers in Turkey. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 7(2), 100-108. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v7.i2.13141 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Ozaslan, H., Kumcağız, H., & Baba Ozturk, M. (2020). The relationship between emotional intelligence and democratic perceptions and attitudes of teacher candidates. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 21(2), 636-654. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.590592 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows. Open University Press [Google Scholar]
  47. Roberts, K. & Owens, S. (2012). Innovative education: A review of the literature. Government of South Australia. [Google Scholar]
  48. Ruys, I., Van Keer, H. & Aelterman, A. (2010). Collaborative learning in pre‐service teacher education: An exploratory study on related conceptions, self‐efficacy and implementation. Educational Studies, 36(5), 537-553. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055691003729021 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  49. Saborit, J. A. P., Fernández-Río, J., Cecchini Estrada, J. A., Méndez-Giménez, A., & Alonso, D. M. (2016). Teachers’ attitude and perception towards cooperative learning implementation: Influence of continuing training. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 438–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.07.020 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Sadıkoğlu, M., Demirel, T., & Hastürk, G. (2022). Fen bilimleri öğretmenlerinin işbirlikli öğrenme yönteminin uygulanabilirliği hakkındaki görüşleri. International Journal of Active Learning (IJAL), 7(1), 1–22. [Google Scholar]
  51. Sampermans, D. (2019). The democratic school climate: Active citizenship at school. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. [Google Scholar]
  52. Sönmez Ektem, İ. (2019). Öğretmen adaylarının eğitim felsefesi inançları ve demokratik tutumları arasındaki ilişki. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 27(6), 2391-2402. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.3142 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Şahin, H., & Uslu, Ö. (2017). 5. sınıf sosyal bilgiler dersinde işbirlikli öğrenmenin öğrencilerin başarıları ve demokratik tutumlarına etkisi [Effects of cooperative learning on students’ achievements and democratic attitudes in the 5th grade social studies course]. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(41), 184. https://doi.org/10.21764/efd.74935 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  54. Şimşek, U. Doymuş, K. ve Karaçöp, A. (2009). Yükseköğretimde eğitim gören öğrencilerin demokratik tutumlarına jigsaw ve birlikte öğrenme tekniklerinin etkisi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 13(1), 167–176. [Google Scholar]
  55. Tamimy, M., Rashidi, N., & Koh, J. H. L. (2023). The use of cooperative learning in English as foreign language classes: The prevalence, fidelity, and challenges. Teaching and Teacher Education, 121(January). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2022.103915 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Tas, A. M. (2018). Examination of the relationship between the democratic attitude of prospective teachers and their communication skills. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(5), 1060-1068. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.060527 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Topkaya, E. Z., & Yavuz, A. (2011). Democratic values and teacher self-efficacy perceptions: A case of pre-service English language teachers in Turkey. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 36(8), 31-48. [Google Scholar]
  58. Turabik, T., & Gün, F. (2016). The relationship between teachers' democratic classroom management attitudes and students' critical thinking dispositions. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(12), 45-57. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i12.1901 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Vacheishvili, N. (2015). Cooperative learning as a democratic awareness method in value education. Education Policy, Management and Qualıty, 7(2), 71–82. https://doi.org/10.48127/spvk-epmq/15.7.71 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  60. Veenman, S., van Benthum, N., Bootsma, D., van Dieren, J., & van der Kemp, N. (2002). Cooperative learning and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(1), 87–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00052-X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  61. Vinterek, M. (2010). How to live democracy in the classroom? Education Inquiry 1(4), 367–380. https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v1i4.21951 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Weinberger, Y. & Shonfeld, M. (2020). Students’ willingness to practice collaborative learning. Teaching Education, 31(2), 127-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2018.1508280 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]