International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2020, Vol. 15(1) 209-231

A Management Factor at Sick Building Syndrome: Are Old or New School Buildings Sick?

Canan Demir Yıldız

pp. 209 - 231   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2020.236.12   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2003-11-0004

Published online: March 24, 2020  |   Number of Views: 84  |  Number of Download: 376


Abstract

The training and learning activities for students are primarily conducted in closed environments. The symptoms resulting from living environments in occupied buildings are referred to as “sick building syndrome (SBS).” The aim of this study is to evaluate the SBS associated with the age of a school building. In this research, grounded research design, which is a type of mixed-method approach, was preferred because qualitative and quantitative methods were used to support each other. Four different schools were selected based on the ages of the school buildings by criterion sampling method. These schools were identified to be 1-, 5-, 10-, and 40-year old buildings. Thus, the research sample comprised a total of 423 students. The students were provided with a questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed with IBM SPSS 25 software. At the end of the research, it was observed that 329 students experience symptoms in the school, and the most commonly experienced physical symptoms are headache (188 students), physical and mental fatigue (175 students), and concentration disorder (142 students). Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between the symptoms experienced by the students during their time in the school and the symptoms they experienced after school. It was revealed that the most uncomfortable places are corridors and washrooms. In general, it can be concluded that the SBS symptoms are observed in four different buildings, and they vary depending on comfort conditions such as hygiene, ventilation, and heating instead of the age of the school building. Furthermore, it was noted that school principals responsible for the administration of school buildings have an important role in the improving or deteriorating of SBS symptoms.

Keywords: Sick Building Syndrome, School Building, Sick Building Symptoms, Students


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Yildiz, C.D. (2020). A Management Factor at Sick Building Syndrome: Are Old or New School Buildings Sick? . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), 209-231. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2020.236.12

Harvard
Yildiz, C. (2020). A Management Factor at Sick Building Syndrome: Are Old or New School Buildings Sick? . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), pp. 209-231.

Chicago 16th edition
Yildiz, Canan Demir (2020). "A Management Factor at Sick Building Syndrome: Are Old or New School Buildings Sick? ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 15 (1):209-231. doi:10.29329/epasr.2020.236.12.

References
  1. Awbi, H. B. (2003). Ventilation of Buildings (Second Edition). Spon Press: London. DOI: 10.4324/9780203634479.  [Google Scholar]
  2. Awbi H, & Pay A. (1995) A study of the air quality in classrooms. Proceedings Second International Conference on Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conversation in Buildings, Montreal, Canada.  9-12 May, 1995, pp 93-104. [Google Scholar]
  3. Berglund, B. & Gidlöf Gunnarsson, A. (2000). Relationships between occupant personality and the sick building syndrome explored. Indoor Air, 10(3):152-169. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0668.2000.010003152.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Bluestein, J. (2001,2019). Creating Emotionally Safe Schools: A guide for educators and parents. USA:HCI. https://janebluestein.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/190503-NBTA-Safe-Schools.pdf [Google Scholar]
  5. Bosher, W. C., Kaminski, K. R. & Vacca, R. S. (2004). The School Law Handbook: What Every Leader Needs to Know. USA:ASCD. Accessed from https://ubufopatyrob.cf/specialties/richard-s-vacca-the-school-law-handbook-what-every-leader-needs-to-know.pdf (accessed 10 February 2019). [Google Scholar]
  6. Brasche S, Bullinger M, Morfeld M, Gebhardt, H. & Bischof, W. (2001).Why do women suffer from sick building syndrome more often than men? Subjective higher sensitivity versus objective causes. Indoor Air, 11(4), 217–222. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0668.2001.110402.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Brightman, H. S. & Moss, N. (2000), 'Sick Building Syndrome Studies and the Compilation of Normative and Comparative Values' in Spengler, J. D., Samet, J. M. & McCarthy, J. F. (Eds.). Indoor Air Quality Handbook. USA:McGraw-Hill Professional.  [Google Scholar]
  8. Burge, P. S. (2004). Sick Building Syndrome. Occupational end Environmental Medicine. 61, 185–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2003.008813 [Google Scholar]
  9. Clean Air Act (1971), 33 United States Code Sec. 1241 Et Esq., 1971. [Google Scholar]
  10. Clements-Croome, D. J., Awbi, H.B., Bakó-Biró, Z., Kochhar, N. & Williams, M. (2008). Ventilation Rates in Schools. Building and Environment. 43(3), 362-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.03.018 [Google Scholar]
  11. Creswell, J. W. (2017). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. USA: Sage Publications. Accessed from http://englishlangkan.com/produk/E%20Book%20Research%20Design%20Cressweell%202014.pdf. (accessed 18 June 2019). [Google Scholar]
  12. Coley L.R., Morris E. J.& Hernandez D. (2004) Out‐of‐school care and problem behavior trajectories among low‐income adolescents: Individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics as added risks. Child development. 75(3):948-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00716.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. Environmental Protection Agency (February, 1991). Air and Radiation. Research and Development (MD-56) [Google Scholar]
  14. Fiedler N, Kelly-McNeil K, Ohman-Strickland P, Zhang, J., Ottenweller, J. & Kipen, H. (2008). Negative affect and chemical intolerance as risk factors for building related symptoms: a controlled exposure study. Psychosomatic Medicine.  70 (2), 254–262. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31816074f4 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fisk, W. J (2001), 'Estimates of Potential Nationwide Productivity and Health Benefits from Better Indoor Environments: An Update' in Spengler, J. D., Samet, J. M. & McCarthy, J. F. (Eds.). Indoor Air Quality Handbook. USA:McGraw-Hill Professional. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gomzi M, Bobic J, Radosevic-Vidacek B, Macan, J., Varnai,V. M., Milkovic-Kraus, S. & Kanceljak-Macan, B. (2007). Sick building syndrome: psychological, somatic and environmental determinants. Arch Environ Occup Health, 62 (3), 147–155. doi: 10.3200/AEOH.62.3.147-155.   [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Lee, S. C. & Chang, M. (2000). Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at schools in Hong Kong. Chemosphere. 41(1-2), 109-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00396-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00396-3 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Lunenburg, F. C. & Ornstein, A. C. (2007). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. USA: Cengage Learning. [Google Scholar]
  19. Mendell M. J. &Heath G.A. (2005). Indoor air.;15(1):27-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00320.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Mizoue, T., Reijula, K. & Andersson, K. (2001). Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Overtime Work as Risk Factors for Sick Building Syndrome in Japan. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(9), 803-808. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/154.9.803 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Norbäck, D. (2009). An update on sick building syndrome. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  9 (1), 55–59. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e32831f8f08 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Redlich, C. A., Sparer, J. & Cullen, M. R. (1997), Sick Building Syndrome. The Lancet, 349 (2), 1013-1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07220-0 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Salvaggio, J.E. (1994). Psychological aspects of environmental illness, multiple chemical sensitivity and building-related illness. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 94(2), 366-370. https://doi.org/10.1053/ai.1994.v94.a56017 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Santilli, J. & Rockwell, W. (2003). Fungal contamination of elementary schools: a new environmental hazard. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 90(2), 208-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62142-4 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Service Associates Illinois Association of School Boards Boards [SAIAoS] (1996). Good School Maintenance: A Manual of Programs and Procedures for Buildings, Grounds, Equipment (Third Edition). Illinois Assn of School Boards.  [Google Scholar]
  26. Smedje, G., Norbäck, D. and Edling, C. (1997). Subjective Indoor Air Quality in Schools in Relation to Exposure. Indoor Air, 7:143-150. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.1997.00009.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Smedje, G., Norbäck, D. (2000) New Ventilation Systems at Select Schools in Sweden—Effects on Asthma and Exposure, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 55:1, 18-25, https://doi.org/10.1080/00039890009603380 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Stenberg B, Wall S. (1995).Why do women report “sick building symptoms” more often than men?. Soc Sci Med, 40(4), 491–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)E0104-Z [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Suh, H. H., Bahadori, T.,Vallarino, J. & Spengler, J. D. (2000). Criteria Air Pollutants and Toxic Air Pollutants. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, pp. 625-633. doi: 10.1289/ehp.00108s4625 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Takigawa, T., Saijo, Y., Morimoto, K., Nakayama, K., Shibata, E., Tanaka, M., Yoshimura, T. Chikara H. and Kishi, R. (2012). A longitudinal study of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds associated with subjective symptoms related to sick building syndrome in new dwellings in Japan. Science of The Total Environment. 417-418:61-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.060 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Wang J, Li B, Yang Q, Yu W, Wang H, et al. (2013) Odors and sensations of humidity and dryness in relation to sick building syndrome and home environment in Chongqing, China. PLoS One 8: e72385. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072385 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Yang, W., Sohn, J., Kim, J., Son, B. & Park, J. (2009). Indoor air quality investigation according to age of the school buildings in Korea. Journal of Environmental Management. 90 (1), 348-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.10.003 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Zhang X, Li F, Zhang L, Zhao Z, Norback D (2014) A Longitudinal Study of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) among Pupils in Relation to SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in Schools in China. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112933. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112933 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Zhao, Z., Zhang, Z., Wang, Z., Ferm, M., Liang, Y. and Norback, D. (2008). Asthmatic Symptoms among Pupils in Relation to Winter Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution in Schools in Taiyuan, China. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116 (1), 90-97. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10576 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]