International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2021, Vol. 16(4) 255-273

Development of a Rubric to Evaluate the Critical Writing Skills Levels of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students

Tufan Bitir & Erol Duran

pp. 255 - 273   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2021.383.14   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2108-27-0001.R1

Published online: December 02, 2021  |   Number of Views: 46  |  Number of Download: 173


Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to develop a rubric for evaluating the critical writing skills of primary school fourth-grade students. The research was designed in quantitative research method and scanning design. The study group of the research consists of 215 students studying in the fourth grade of five different primary schools determined by the purposeful sampling method, taking into account their gender and socioeconomic status. Research data were collected during the development stages of the rubric and lasted for four weeks. In this process, opinions were received from 54 classroom teachers, 12 Turkish teachers, 8 doctoral students continuing their graduate education in the field of Classroom Education and Turkish Education, and 16 academicians who are experts in the field of Basic Education. In addition, the students in the study group were asked to write critical articles and the written products were evaluated through the developed scoring key. The collected data were analyzed with a statistical program. In order to ensure internal consistency in the research, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was determined in order to determine the reliability of the evaluations of the raters who scored the data. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was determined in order to determine that the dimensions and items in the developed rubric were items that were consistent with each other and that examined the same feature. As a result of the findings, it was concluded that there was a high level of consistency between the evaluations made by different raters. In addition, in line with the expert opinions received during the development of the rubric, It was concluded that the rubric exactly measured what was intended to be measured and the rubric was valid and reliable.

Keywords: Writing, Critical Writing, Rubric


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Bitir, T. & Duran, E. (2021). Development of a Rubric to Evaluate the Critical Writing Skills Levels of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(4), 255-273. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2021.383.14

Harvard
Bitir, T. and Duran, E. (2021). Development of a Rubric to Evaluate the Critical Writing Skills Levels of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 16(4), pp. 255-273.

Chicago 16th edition
Bitir, Tufan and Erol Duran (2021). "Development of a Rubric to Evaluate the Critical Writing Skills Levels of Fourth-Grade Primary School Students ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 16 (4):255-273. doi:10.29329/epasr.2021.383.14.

References
  1. Akınoğlu, O. (2001). The effect of science teaching based on critical thinking skills on learning products (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akyol, H. (2008). Turkish primary reading and writing teaching (7th ed.). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  3. Alan, Y. (1994). Language and people. TÖV Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  4. Aydın, G. (2019). Basic concepts of writing education . Halit Karatay (Ed.), in Basic concepts of language education (s.73-101). Asos Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bağcı, H. (2011). Written expression and its elements.  Murat Özbay (Ed.) in Writing training  (s. 85-126). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  6. Calp, M. (2010). Teaching Turkish as a special education field. Şükran Calp (Ed.). Nobel Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  7. Chamberlain, K., & Burrough, S. (1985). Techniques for teaching critical reading. Teaching of Psychology, 12(4), 213-215. [Google Scholar]
  8. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Introduction to mixed methods research. Mustafa Sözbilir (Trans.). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  9. Çepni, S. (2012). Evaluation of performances. E. Karip (Ed.). Quantification and consideration. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  10. Demir, S. B., & Yıldırım, Ö. (2019). Developing rubrics for the evaluation of written expression skills. Pamukkale University Faculty of Education Journal, 47, 457-473. [Google Scholar]
  11. Demirel, Ö. (1999). Teaching Turkish in primary schools. MONE Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  12. Demirel, Ö. (2003). Turkish teaching. Pegem Akademi Pub¬lishing. [Google Scholar]
  13. Demirel, Ö., & Şahinel, M. (2006). Teaching Turkish for Turkish and classroom teachers. (7th Edition). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  14. Deniz, K. (2003). The Situation of Village and Urban Fifth Grade Students in terms of Written Expression Skills (Turkish Teaching Special Issue). Journal of Turkology Research, (13), 233- 255. [Google Scholar]
  15. Dunbar, N.E., Brooks, C. F ve Miller, K. T. ( 2006). Oral communication skills in higher education: Using a performance-based evaluation rubric to assess communication skills. Innovative Higher Education, 31(2), 115–28.  [Google Scholar]
  16. Duran, E., & Özdil, Ş. (2020). Determination of informative text writing skill levels of primary school fourth grade students . Research in Reading &Writing İnstruction, 8(1), 21-31. [Google Scholar]
  17. Ferris, D. (2003). Response to student writing implications for second language students. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodrich Andrade, H. (2001). The effects of instructional rubrics on learning to write. Current Issues in Education, 4(4), 1-21. [Google Scholar]
  19. Göçer, A. (2005). Measurement and evaluation in Turkish teaching at the second level of primary education (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Atatürk University, Institute of Social Sciences, Erzurum. [Google Scholar]
  20. Göçer, A. (2007). Teaching Turkish in Turkish and for classroom teachers and teacher candidates. Öncü Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  21. Göçer, A. (2010). Writing education in Turkish teaching. Jour¬nal of International Social Research, 3(12), 178-195. [Google Scholar]
  22. Güzel, A., & Karatay, H. (2019). Turkish teaching handbook. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2013). Multivariate Data Analysis: Essex: Pearson Education Limited.  [Google Scholar]
  24. Huck, S. W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed). Boston: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  25. Kantemir, E. (1991). Written and oral expression. Ankara University Faculty of Education Publications. [Google Scholar]
  26. Karabay, A. (2013). The effect of critical writing education on the writing academic achievement and critical writ¬ing levels of Turkish teacher candidates. Turkish Studies, 8(9), 1729-1743. [Google Scholar]
  27. Karaca, S. (2019). Evaluation of written expression skills of secondary school students. Eleşkirt/Ağrı example (Un¬published PhD Thesis). Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ağrı. [Google Scholar]
  28. Karadağ, Ö. & Maden, S. (2019). Writing education: Theory, practice, measurement and evaluation. Güzel, A., & Karatay, H. (Ed.) in Turkish teaching (s.263-302). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  29. Karatay, H. (2019). Basic concepts of language education. Asos Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kavcar, C., Oğuzkan, F., & Aksoy, Ö. (2002). Written and Oral Expression. (2nd Edition). Anı Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  31. Keskinkılıç, K. & Keskinkılıç, B. (2007). Turkish and primary literacy teaching. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kılınç, A. & Şahin, A. (2012). Teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  33. Kurland, D. (2021). Critical Reading v. Critical Thinking. Retreived on 04.02.2021 from http://www.criticalreading.com/critical_reading_thinking.html [Google Scholar]
  34. Kuşdemir, Y. & Bulut, P. (2018). Assessment and evaluation in writing. Akyol, H., & Yıldız, M. (Ed.). in Teaching writing from theory to practice (s. 285-320). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  35. Kutlu, Ö., Doğan, C. D., & Karakaya, İ. (2010). Determination of student success: Assessment, assessment and evaluation practices based on performance and portfolio. (3nd edition). Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  36. Larson, C. U. (2001). Persuasion reception and responsibility. Belmonth: Wadsworth /Thomson Learning. [Google Scholar]
  37. MONE. (2005). Elementary Turkish lesson curriculum and guide (grades 1-5). Directorate of State Books. [Google Scholar]
  38. MONE. (2006). Elementary Turkish lesson curriculum and guide (6, 7, 8th grades). Directorate of State Books. [Google Scholar]
  39. MONE. (2018). Turkish lesson curriculum. Ministry of National Education Publications. [Google Scholar]
  40. Mertler, C. (2000). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(25),1-8. Retreived on 12.07.2021 from  https://scholarworks.umass.edu/pare/vol7/iss1/25/  [Google Scholar]
  41. Mortensen, W. K. (2004). Maximum influence: The twelve universal laws of power persuasion. New York: Amacom. [Google Scholar]
  42. Moskal, B. M. ve Leydens, J. A. (2000). Scoring rubric development: Validity and reliability. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(10), 1-6. [Google Scholar]
  43. Nas, R. (2003). Turkish teaching. Ezgi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  44. Okur, A., Göçen Ö., & Süğümlü, Ü. (2013). Persuasive writing and comparative research (Australian mother tongue teaching course materials and the example of Turkey). Journal of Mustafa Kemal University Institute of Social Sciences , 10(21), 167-197. [Google Scholar]
  45. Özbay, M. (2011). Writing training. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  46. Özdamar, K. (2004). Statistical data analysis with package programs-1. (5nd edition). Kaan Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  47. Özdemir, E. (1983). Mother tongue teaching. (Language Teaching Special Issue). Journal of Turkish Language, (379),18-30. [Google Scholar]
  48. Özden, Y. (2008). Learning and teaching. Pegem Akademi Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  49. Parlatır, İ. (2010). Punctuation marks and abbreviations. (Commission) in Turkish language and composition (pp. 315- 358). Ekin Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  50. Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2005). Critical thinking and the art of substantive writing (Part I). Journal of Developmental Education, 29(1), 40-41. [Google Scholar]
  51. Popham, W.J. (2000). Modern educational measurement: Practical guidelines for educational leaders (3rd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  52. Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing. New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  53. Seçer, İ. (2017). Practical data analysis with SPSS and LISREL. Anı Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  54. Sever, S. (2004). Turkish teaching and full learning. (4nd edition). Anı Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  55. Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). B.G. Tabachnick, L.S. Fidell Using Multivariate Statistics (6nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  56. Tama, M. C., & McClain, A. B. (1998). Guiding reading and writing in the content areas: Practical strategies. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. [Google Scholar]
  57. Tekşan, K. (2013). Writing training. Kriter Publisher. [Google Scholar]
  58. Topçuoğlu Ünal, F., & Tekin, M. T. (2013). Metaphorical perceptions of Turkish teacher candidates about critical writing. Turkish Studies, 8(13), 1595-1607. [Google Scholar]
  59. Ülper, H. (2009). A comparative study of the validity of different assessment (grading) approaches used in measuring (grading) writing skills in the context of the purposes of essay writing. I. National Congress of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology (14-16 May, 2008). Ankara, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  60. Wallace, M., & Wray, A. (2008). Critical reading and writing for postgraduates. Sage Publications. [Google Scholar]
  61. Yıldız, C., Okur, A., Arı, G., & Yılmaz, Y. (2013). Turkish teaching. Cemal Yıldız (Ed.). Pegem Akdemi Publishing.​ [Google Scholar]