International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2020, Vol. 15(1) 275-293

An Explanatory Model of Academic Success

Yasin Demir & Tuncay Yavuz Özdemir

pp. 275 - 293   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2020.236.15   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1911-06-0002.R2

Published online: March 24, 2020  |   Number of Views: 132  |  Number of Download: 401


Abstract

The aim of this study is to test the model which explains the academic success suggested by the researchers by considering the theoretical explanations and the results of the studies in the literature. The hypotheses tested in accordance with this general aim are: The number of social media accounts and the duration of internet usage positively and directly affect internet addiction, internet addiction negatively and directly affects academic motivation, academic motivation positively and directly affects school attachment and school attachment positively and directly affects academic success. In the model explaining academic success, measurement tools were applied to 205 high school adolescents. Internet Addiction Test-Short Version by Young, Academic Motivation Scale, School Attachment Scale for Children and Adolescents along with personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Analyses were performed using SPSS 20 and AMOS software. In the test phase of the model, covariance matrix and maximum likelihood method were used. As a result of the analysis, the proposed hypotheses were confirmed and the proposed hypothetical showed compliance [χ2=75.510, df=33, χ2/df=2.288, RMSEA=0.079, SRMR=0.078, GFI=0.93, AGFI=0.89, CFI=0.88; IFI=0.80, TLI (NNFI)=0.85]. According to the results of the research it has been concluded that the higher number of social media accounts and the increase in the duration of internet usage leads to internet addiction, internet addiction negatively affects academic motivation, low level of academic motivation affects school attachment negatively and low level of school attachment does not negatively affect academic success.

Keywords: Academic Success, Academic Motivation, School Attachment, Internet Addiction


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Demir, Y. & Ozdemir, T.Y. (2020). An Explanatory Model of Academic Success . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), 275-293. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2020.236.15

Harvard
Demir, Y. and Ozdemir, T. (2020). An Explanatory Model of Academic Success . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), pp. 275-293.

Chicago 16th edition
Demir, Yasin and Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir (2020). "An Explanatory Model of Academic Success ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 15 (1):275-293. doi:10.29329/epasr.2020.236.15.

References
  1. Akandere, M., Özyalvaç, N. T., & Duman, S. (2010). The attitudes of the students in secondary education to physical education lesson and the investigation of their success motivations (Konya Anatolian high school sample). Selçuk University The Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 24, 1-10. [Google Scholar]
  2. Andreassen, C. S., & Pallesen, S. (2014). Social network site addiction – An overview. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20, 4053–4061. [Google Scholar]
  3. Audas, R. & Willms, J. D. (2002). Engagement and dropping out of school: A life-course perspective, applied research branch of strategic policy, hull, québec. Canada: HRDC Publications Centre.  [Google Scholar]
  4. Balcı, Ş., & Gülnar, B. (2009). Internet addiction among university students and the profile of internet addicts. Journal of Selcuk Communication; 6(1), 5-22. [Google Scholar]
  5. Balkıs, M., Erdinç, D., Buluş, M., & Duru, S. (2006). An investigation of the academic procrastination among university students in related to various variables. Ege Journal of Education, 7(2), 57–73.  [Google Scholar]
  6. Beard, K. W., & Wolf, E. M. (2001). Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 377-383. [Google Scholar]
  7. Becker, M. W., Alzahabi, R., & Hopwood, C. J. (2013). Media multitasking is associated with symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(2), 132-135. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bedel, E. F. (2015). Exploring academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(1), 142-149.  [Google Scholar]
  9. Bozanoğlu, İ. (2004). The effect of a group guidance program based on cognitive behavioral approach on academc motivation, academic self-esteem, academic achievement and test anxiety levels of at risk students. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Ankara University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.  [Google Scholar]
  10. Bölükbaş, K. (2003). A sociological research on ınternet cafes and net- addiction: Diyarbakır. Unpublished Master Thesis, Dicle University Institute of Soc,al Sciences, Diyarbakır. [Google Scholar]
  11. Can, S. (2008). Examining school bonding levels of secondary school students according to some variables. Unpublished Master Thesis, Ege University, İzmir. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cao, F., & Su, L. (2007). Internet Addiction Among Chinese Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychological Features. Child: Care, Health And Development, 33(3), 275-281. [Google Scholar]
  13. Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic internet use and psychological well-being devolpment of a theory based cognitive behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(5), 53-75.  [Google Scholar]
  14. Cemalcilar, Z. (2010). Schools as socialisation contexts: Understanding the impact of school climate factors on students‟ sense of school belonging. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59(2), 243-272. [Google Scholar]
  15. Cengizhan, C. (2005). Öğrencilerin bilgisayar ve internet kullanımında yeni bir boyut: İnternet bağımlılığı. Marmara University Atatürk Education Faculty Journal of Educational Sciences,22, 83-98. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ceyhan, E. (2008). A risk factor for adolescent  mental health: Internet addiction. Turkish Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15(2),109-116. [Google Scholar]
  17. Chen, K., Chen, I., & Paul, H. (2001). Explaining online bahavioral differences: An internet dependency perspective. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 41(3), 59-63. [Google Scholar]
  18. Clark, M. H. & Schroth, C. A. (2010) Examining relationships between academic motivation and personality among college students. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 19-24. [Google Scholar]
  19. Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L. (1994). Educational risk and resilience in African‐American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development, 65(2), 493-506.  [Google Scholar]
  20. Çam, E., & Işman, A. (2013). Teacher candidates’ use of Facebook for educational purposes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 2500–2506.  [Google Scholar]
  21. Çelik, E. (2018). The relationship between the addictions of the teachers to internet, social media and marital adjustement and family members. İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Institute of Social Sciences, Unpublished Master Thesis [Google Scholar]
  22. Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17(2), 187-195. [Google Scholar]
  23. Deci, E. L, Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R.M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist , 26(3&4), 325-346.  [Google Scholar]
  24. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.  [Google Scholar]
  25. Demir, Y. & Kutlu, M. (2017). Relationships among internet addiction, academic procrastination and academic achievement. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 61, 91-105. Doi: 10.9761/JASSS7296 [Google Scholar]
  26. Demir, Y. (2017). Relationships among internet addiction, academic motivation, academic procrastination, and school attachment in adolescents  (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). İnönü University,  Institute of Educational Sciences, Malatya. [Google Scholar]
  27. Doğan, U. (2014). Validity and reliability of student engagement scale. Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education, 3(2), 390-403. [Google Scholar]
  28. Dotterer, A. M., & Lowe, K. (2011). Classroom Context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1649-1660. [Google Scholar]
  29. Eisele, H., Zand, D. H., & Thomson, N. R. (2009). The role of sex, self-perception, and school bonding in predicting academic achievement among middle class African American early adolescents. Adolescence, 44(176), 773-796. [Google Scholar]
  30. Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 461-475.  [Google Scholar]
  31. Engh, L., Jernbro, C., Lin, P. I., Bornehag, C. G., & Eriksson, U. B. (2018). Can school attachment modify the relation between foster care placement and school achievement?. British Journal of School Nursing, 13(4), 178-185. [Google Scholar]
  32. Erdil, Z. (2010). Relationship of academic achievement and early intervention programs for children who are at socio-economical risk. Journal of Hacettepe University Faculty of Nursing, 17(1), 72-78. [Google Scholar]
  33. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. NewYork: McGraw Hill. [Google Scholar]
  34. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J. & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement, In K. A. Moore & L. Lippman (Eds.) What do children nedd to flourish?: Conceptualizing and measuring ındicators of positive development. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. [Google Scholar]
  35. Gillen‐O'Neel, C., & Fuligni, A. (2013). A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school. Child Development, 84(2), 678-692. [Google Scholar]
  36. Goldberg, I. (1996). Internet addiction support group. www.river.edu:http://users.rider.edu/~ suler/psycyber/supportgp.html on 29.12.2018 has been accessed. [Google Scholar]
  37. Gonzalez, N. A. (2002). Internet addiction disorder and its relation to impulse control. Unpublished master’s thesis, Texas A&M University – Kingsville. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/34761752_Internet_addiction_disorder_and_its_relation_to_impulse_control on 28.12.2018 has been accessed.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Gottfredson, D. C., Fink, C. M., & Graham, N. (1994). Grade retention and problem behavior. American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 761-784. [Google Scholar]
  39. Griffiths, M. (2000). Internet addiction-time to be taken seriously?. Addiction research, 8(5), 413-418. [Google Scholar]
  40. Guay, F., Denault, A. S., & Renauld, S. (2017). School attachment and relatedness with parents, friends and teachers as predictors of students’ intrinsic and identified regulation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51, 416-428. [Google Scholar]
  41. Güçdemir, Y. (2012). Sanal ortamda iletişim: Bir halkla ilişkiler perspektifi. İstanbul: Derin.  [Google Scholar]
  42. Günüç, S. (2014). The relationship between student engagement and their academic achievement. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 5(4), 216-231 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hill, L. G., & Werner, N. E. (2006). Affıliative motivation, school attachment, and aggression in school. Psychology in the Schools, 43(2), 231-246. [Google Scholar]
  44. Hirschfield, P. J., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(1), 3-22. [Google Scholar]
  45. Hirschi, T. (1969). A control theory of delinquency. In F. P. Williams III & M. D. McShane (Eds.), Criminological theory (pp. 245–261). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson. Doi:10.4324/9781315131511-7 Hirschi, T. (2009). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley, CA: Univesity of California Press. [Google Scholar]
  46. https://wearesocial.com/blog/2018/04/social-media-use-jumps-in-q1-despite-privacy-fears on 28.12.2018 has been accessed. [Google Scholar]
  47. Jenkins, P. H. (1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34, 337-367. [Google Scholar]
  48. Karagüven, M. H. Ü. (2012). The adaptation of academic motivation scale to Turkish. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(4), 2611-2618.  [Google Scholar]
  49. Karaiskos, D., Tzavellas, E., Balta, G., & Paparrigopoulos, T. (2010). P02-232-Social network addiction: a new clinical disorder?. European Psychiatry, 25, 855. [Google Scholar]
  50. Khan, S. (2012). Impact of social networking websites on students. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2). 56–77.  [Google Scholar]
  51. Khan, S. A., & Bhatti, R. (2012). Application of social media in marketing of library and information services: A case study from Pakistan. Webology, 9(1), 1-8. [Google Scholar]
  52. Klem, A. M. ve Connell, J. M. (2004). RelationshipsMatter: Linking Teacher Supportt Student Engagement and Achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262-273. [Google Scholar]
  53. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. (3nd Edition ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  54. Korkmaz, E. (2011). The elementary school principals practice for the distributed leadership. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Sakarya University,  Institute of Social Sciences, Sakarya.  [Google Scholar]
  55. Korkmaz, M. (2011). The effects of organizational climate and organizational health on organizational commitment in primary schools. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 17(1), 117-139. [Google Scholar]
  56. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., & Mukopadhyay, T. (2002). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduce social involvement and psychological well-being? Journal of Socail Issues, 1(58) s. 49-74. [Google Scholar]
  57. Kutlu, M., Savcı, M., Demir, Y., & Aysan, F. (2016). Turkish adaptation of Young’s Internet Addiction Test-Short Form: a reliability and validity study on university students and adolescents. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 17(1), 69-76. [Google Scholar]
  58. Küçükali, M. (2016). Social Media Usage of College Students: The Case of Atatürk University. Bartin University Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 7(13), 531–546. [Google Scholar]
  59. Leung, L. (2004). Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(3), 338-348. [Google Scholar]
  60. Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 274-247. [Google Scholar]
  61. Manlove, J. (1998). The influence of high school dropout and school disengagement on the risk of school-age pregnancy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(2), 187-220. [Google Scholar]
  62. Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M. C., & Bosker, R. (2014). Teacher–student interpersonal relationships do change and affect academic motivation: A multilevel growth curve modelling. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 459-482.  [Google Scholar]
  63. Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M.C., & Bosker, R. (2014). Teacher-student interpersonal relationships do change and affect academic motivation: A multilevel growth curve modelling. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 459-482. [Google Scholar]
  64. Mazer, J. P. (2013). Validity of the student interest and engagement scales: Associations with student learning outcomes. Communication Studies, 64(2), 125-140. [Google Scholar]
  65. McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health-risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 284-292. [Google Scholar]
  66. Mengi, S. (2011). Relations for the social support and self efficacy with school bonding of the secondary education 10th and 11th classes students. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Sakarya University,  Institute of Social Sciences, Sakarya. [Google Scholar]
  67. Miller, V. (2017). Phatic culture and the status quo: Reconsidering the purpose of social media activism. Convergence, 23(3), 251-269. [Google Scholar]
  68. Mohammadi, K., & Torabi, B. (2018). Study of two main aspects of development (moral development and social self-efficacy) as predictors of internet addiction and student academic failure. Iranian Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 39-45. [Google Scholar]
  69. Moody, J., & Bearman, P. S. (1998). Shaping school climate: School context, adolescent social networks, and attachment to school. Unpublished Manuscript. [Google Scholar]
  70. Mouton, S. G., Hawkins, J., McPherson, R. H., & Copley, J. (1996). School attachment: Perspectives of low‐attached high school students. Educational Psychology, 16(3), 297-304. [Google Scholar]
  71. Muraya, K., Elliot, A. J., & Freidman, R. (2012). Achievement goals. R. M. Ryan (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation in (p. 191-208). USA: Oxford University Publications. [Google Scholar]
  72. Muslu, G. K., & Bolışık, B. (2009). Internet usage among children and young people. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 8(5), 445-450. [Google Scholar]
  73. O’Reilly, T. (2005), What is web 2.0 Design Patterns And Business Models For The Next Generation Of Software, http://oreilly.com/lpt/a/6228  [Google Scholar]
  74. Oktan, V. (2015). Problematic internet use, loneliness and perceived social support among university students. Kastamonu Education Journal, 23(1), 281-292. [Google Scholar]
  75. Öksüz, E., Guvenc, G., & Mumcu, S. (2018). Relationship between problematic internet use and time management among nursing students. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 36(1), 55-61. [Google Scholar]
  76. Öncü H. (2004): Motivasyon, Sınıf Yönetimi. L. Küçükahmet (Ed). Ankara: Nobel Publication.  [Google Scholar]
  77. Özder, H., & Motorcan, A. (2013). An analysis of teacher candidates’ academic motivation levels with respect to several variables. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 15(1), 42-53.  [Google Scholar]
  78. Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Vallerand, R.J., Larose, S., & Senecal, C. (2007). Autonomus, controlled ve amotived types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 734-746. [Google Scholar]
  79. Roy, D. R., & Chakraborty, S. K. (2015). Impact of social media / social networks on education and life of undergraduate level students of Karimganj town-A survey. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies. 1(1). 141- 147. [Google Scholar]
  80. Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 437-460.  [Google Scholar]
  81. Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 437-460. [Google Scholar]
  82. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57,749-761. [Google Scholar]
  83. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67. [Google Scholar]
  84. Savci, M., Ercengiz, M., & Aysan, F. (2018). Turkish adaptation of the social media disorder scale in adolescents. Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 55(3), 248-255. [Google Scholar]
  85. Savi, F. (2011). School attachment scale for children and adolescents: The study of validity and reliability Elementary Education Online, 10(1), 80-90. [Google Scholar]
  86. Schunk, D. H., Meece, J. R., & Pintrich, P. R. (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.  [Google Scholar]
  87. Simkova, B., & Cincera, J. (2004). Internet addiction disorder and chatting in the czech republic. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(5), 536-539. [Google Scholar]
  88. Simons-Morton, B., & Chen, R. (2009). Peer and parent influences on school engagement among early adolescents. Youth Society, 41(1), 3-25. [Google Scholar]
  89. Simons-Morton, B. G., Crump, A. D., Haynie, D. L., & Saylor, K. E. (1999). Student–school bonding and adolescent problem behavior. Health Education Research, 14(1), 99-107. [Google Scholar]
  90. Skinner, E. A., Pitzer, J. R., & Steele, J. S. (2016). Can student engagement serve as a motivational resource for academic coping, persistence, and learning during late elementary and early middle school?. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 2099-2117. [Google Scholar]
  91. Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether i’ve got it: The role of perceived control in children’s engagement and school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 22−32. [Google Scholar]
  92. Spilt, J. L., Hughes, J. N., Wu, J. Y., & Kwok, O. M. (2012). Dynamics of teacher–student relationships: Stability and change across elementary school and the influence on children’s academic success. Child Development, 83(4), 1180-1195. [Google Scholar]
  93. Srivastava, P. (2012). Social networking & its impact on education-system in contemporary era. International Journal of Information Technology Infrastructure, 1(2), 11–18. [Google Scholar]
  94. Stavropoulos, V., Alexandraki, K., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2013). Recognizing internet addiction: prevalence and relationship to academic achievement in adolescents enrolled in urban and rural Greek high schools. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 565-576. [Google Scholar]
  95. Sternberg, R. J., & Williams, W. M. (2009). Educational psychology. New Jersey: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  96. Suhail K., & Bargees Z. (2006). Effects of excessive internet use on undergraduate students in Pakistan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 297-307. [Google Scholar]
  97. Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74. [Google Scholar]
  98. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2015). Çok değişkenli istatistiklerin kullanımı. (Çev. Ed. M. Baloğlu). Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi. [Google Scholar]
  99. TUIK, (2017). İstatistiklerle Gençlik, 2017. https://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.tuik. gov.tr/PdfGetir.do%3Fid%3D27598&sa=U&ved=0ahUKEwig_67IxcLfAhUL26QKHc r_A4sQFggcMAk&client=internal-uds-cse&cx=015200851248949254112:qaug18 judny&usg=AOvVaw3lXde-7jBk1w4Jf21jrK2T on 28.12.2018 has been accessed.  [Google Scholar]
  100. Umur, I. (2007). Effects of internet usage parallel to media system dependency theory and internet dependency. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Selçuk University,  Institute of Social Sciences, Konya.  [Google Scholar]
  101. Uyulgan, M. A., & Akkuzu, N. (2014). An overview of student teachers’ academic intrinsic motivation. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(1), 24-32. [Google Scholar]
  102. Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599-620.  [Google Scholar]
  103. Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M. R., Briére, N. M., Senécal C., & Valliéres, E. F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.  [Google Scholar]
  104. Van Dijk, J. (206). Ağ Toplumu. (Çev: Özlem Sakin). İstanbul: Kafka [Google Scholar]
  105. Wang, M., & Eccles, J. S. (2011). Adolescent behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement trajectories in school and their differential relations to educational success. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 31–39. [Google Scholar]
  106. Wearesocial (2018). Social Media Use Jumps In Q1 Despite Privacy Fears. [Google Scholar]
  107. Yellowlees, P. M., & Marks, S. (2007). Problematic internet use or internet addiction?. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1447-1453. [Google Scholar]
  108. Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction--and a winning strategy for recovery. John Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]