International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2020, Vol. 15(1) 22-43

The Effect of Prediction, Observation, Explanation Supported Project-Based Environmental Education on the Levels of Attitude and Behavior Toward the Environment

Duygu Çalış & Halil İbrahim Yıldırım

pp. 22 - 43   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2001-10-0004.R2

Published online: March 24, 2020  |   Number of Views: 242  |  Number of Download: 707


This study aims to determine the effect of prediction, observation, explanation supported project based environmental education (POESPBEE) on the attitudes and behaviors levels of eighth grade students compared to teacher-centered environmental education. The study used a quasi-experimental research design including pre-test, post-test and control group. The application step of the study was carried out by the researchers in a ten-week period in 2018-2019 academic year. The study group consisted of eighth grade students attending a state secondary school in Turkey. The study group included 62 students, 34 of whom were in the experimental group and 28 of whom were in the control group. The experimental group was applied the POESPBEE and the control group was applied teacher-centered environmental education. Attitude Scale toward Environment and Behavior Scale toward Environment were administrated as pre-test, post-test and follow-up test to evaluate the attitude and behavior levels of the students in the experimental and control groups toward the environment. Data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. The study found that the POESPBEE provided a significant development on students’ attitude and behavior; however, teacher-centered environmental education could not provide a significant development on the students. Based on this result, it can be claimed that the methods like the POESPBEE, which can change individuals’ attitudes and behaviors toward the environment in positive way, should be used in environmental education.

Keywords: Environmental education, prediction-observation-explanation supported project based environmental education, prediction-observation-explanation, project based learning

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Calis, D. & Yildirim, H.I. (2020). The Effect of Prediction, Observation, Explanation Supported Project-Based Environmental Education on the Levels of Attitude and Behavior Toward the Environment . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), 22-43. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2020.236.2

Calis, D. and Yildirim, H. (2020). The Effect of Prediction, Observation, Explanation Supported Project-Based Environmental Education on the Levels of Attitude and Behavior Toward the Environment . Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(1), pp. 22-43.

Chicago 16th edition
Calis, Duygu and Halil Ibrahim Yildirim (2020). "The Effect of Prediction, Observation, Explanation Supported Project-Based Environmental Education on the Levels of Attitude and Behavior Toward the Environment ". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 15 (1):22-43. doi:10.29329/epasr.2020.236.2.

  1. Akçay, B. (2017). Teaching and learning approaches in the field of science. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akgün, Ş. (2001). Science education. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  3. Aktaş, H. (2014, October). Environmental education in Islam. The paper presented at the International Symposium on Environment, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane. [Google Scholar]
  4. Armağan, F. (2006). Elementary school 7th and 8th grade students’ knowledge levels about enviromental education: Kırıkkale case. Master’s thesis. Gazi University, Institute Of Educational Sciences, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  5. Atasoy, B. (2004). Science education and teaching. Ankara: Asil. [Google Scholar]
  6. Atasoy, E., & Ertürk, H. (2008). A field study about environmental knowledge and attitudes of elementary school students. Erzincan Journal of Education, 10(1), 105-122. [Google Scholar]
  7. Awad, A. S. M. (2017). The effect of a project-based teaching strategy on enhancing environmental attitudes among students of the faculty of educational science and art. International Journal for Research in Education, 41(2), 1-39. [Google Scholar]
  8. Baş, G. (2010). The effects of multiple intelligences instructional strategy on the environmental awareness knowledge and environmental attitude levels of elementary students in science course. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 1(1), 53–80. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bayram, H., & Seloni, Ş. R. (2014). Effect of project based learning approach on 5th grade students’ achievement attitude and conceptual understanding. Journal of Educational Sciences, 39, 71-84. [Google Scholar]
  10. Benli, N., Ay, Y., & Kahramanoğlu, R. (2011, September). Impact of project-based education on students’ attitudes towards the environment in teaching sound, light, air, water and soil pollution. 20. Education Sciences Congress, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur. [Google Scholar]
  11. Benzer, E. (2010). The effect of environment education lesson prepared with project based learning approach on the pre-service science teachers’ environmental literacy. Doctoral dissertation. Marmara University, Institute of Educational Sciences, İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  12. Benzer, E., & Şahin, F. (2012). Evaluation of pre-service science teachers’ environmental literacy by using case studies throughout project based learning. M.Ü. Atatürk Journal of Educational Sciences, 35, 55-83. [Google Scholar]
  13. Boo, H. K., & Watson, J. R. (2001). Progression in high school students’ (aged 16-18) conceptualizations about reactions in solution. Science Education, 85(5), 568- 585. [Google Scholar]
  14. Borhan, M. T., & İsmail, Z. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ perception toward environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 8, 117-137. [Google Scholar]
  15. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Handbook of data analysis for the social sciences, statistics, research pattern, SPSS applications and commentary. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  16. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2016). Scientific research methods. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  17. Çepni, S. (2014). Introduction to research and project studies. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  18. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cutter, M. A. (2009). Multicultural school gardens: Creating engaging garden spaces in learning about language, culture, and environment. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 14, 122–135. [Google Scholar]
  20. Demir, E., & Yalçın, H. (2014). Environmental education in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Scientific Reviews, 7(2), 07-18. [Google Scholar]
  21. Erdoğan, M., Kostova, Z., & Marcinkowski, T. (2009). Components of environmental literacy in elementary science education curriculum in Bulgaria and Turkey. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 5(1), 15-26. [Google Scholar]
  22. Erol, A. (2016). Investigation of the impact of family-based environmental education program based on the project approach on environmental awareness and tuition of 5-6 year old children. Master’s thesis. Pamukkale University Institute of Educational Sciences, Denizli. [Google Scholar]
  23. Erten, S. (2004). What is environmental education and environmental awareness, how environmental education should be. Journal of Environment and Human, 65(66), 1-13. [Google Scholar]
  24. Eryaman, M. Y., Ozdilek, S. Y., Okur, E., Cetinkaya, Z. & Uygun, S. (2010). A participatory action research study of nature education in nature: Towards community-based eco-pedagogy. International Journal of Progressive Education, 6(3), 53-70 [Google Scholar]
  25. Evans, R., Koul, R., & Rennie, L. (2007). Raising environmental awareness through a school-community partnership. Teaching Science, 53(1), 30-34. [Google Scholar]
  26. Farmer, J., Knapp, D., & Benton, G. M. (2007). An elementary school environmental education field trip: Long-term effects on ecological and environmental knowledge and attitude development. The Journal of Environmental Education, 38(3), 33–42. [Google Scholar]
  27. Gautier, C. (2014). Oil, water, and climate: An introduction. New York: Cambridge University. [Google Scholar]
  28. General Directorate of Environmental Impact Assessment Permit and Inspection (GDEIAPI). (2004). Environmental atlas of Turkey. Retrieved from çevreatlası/atlas_metni.pdf [Google Scholar]
  29. Gülay, H., & Önder, A. (2011). Environmental education in preschool for sustainable development. Ankara: Nobel. [Google Scholar]
  30. Güngör, S. N., & Özkan, M. (2017). Evaluation of the opinions of science teacher candidates regarding prediction-observation-explanation method. e-International Journal Of Educational Research, 8(1), 82-95. [Google Scholar]
  31. Güven, E. (2011). The effect of prediction-observation-explanation supported project-based learning method on different variables in environmental education and student views on the method. Doctoral dissertation. Gazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  32. Güven, E. (2014). The effect of project based learning method supported by prediction – observation – explanations on the attitude and behaviors towards environmental problems. Education and Science, 39(173), 25-39. [Google Scholar]
  33. Hsu, S. J. (2004). The effects of an environmental education program on responsible environmental behavior and associated environmental literacy variables in Taiwanese college students. The Journal of Environmental Education, 35(2), 37-48. [Google Scholar]
  34. Karataş, A. (2013). The role of environmental education in the development of environmental awareness and the example of Niğde University Faculty of Education. Doctoral dissertation. Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  35. Kaşarcı, İ. (2013). The impact of project-based learning approach on students’ academic success and attitudes: A meta-analysis study. Master’s thesis. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Eskişehir. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kırbağ Zengin, F., & Yucasu, Ş. (2017). The effect of project-based learning method on environmental knowledge and behavior of science teacher candidates. International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, 8(28), DCXVIII-DCXXXIII. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kızılaslan, H., & Kızılaslan, N. (2005). Awareness and behavior of rural people on environmental issues (The Case of Artova district of Tokat province). International Journal of Management Economics and Business, 1(1), 67-89.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Knapp, D., & Barrie, E. (2001). Content evaluation of an environmental science field trip. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10(4), 351–357. [Google Scholar]
  39. Korkmaz, H. (2002). The effect of project-based learning in Science Education on creative thinking, problem solving and academic risk-taking levels. Doctoral dissertation. Hacettepe University Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  40. Korkmaz, H., & Kaptan, F. (2001). Project-based learning approach in science education. Hacettepe University Journal Of Education, 20, 193-200. [Google Scholar]
  41. Liew, C. W., & Treagust, D. F. (1998). The effectiveness of predict-observe-explain technique in diagnosing students’ understanding of science and in identifying their levels of achievement. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of The American Educational Research Association, San Diego. [Google Scholar]
  42. Liew, C.W. (1995). A predict-observe-explain teaching sequence for learning about students’ understanding of heat and expansion of liquids. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 41(1), 68-72. [Google Scholar]
  43. Mahidin, A.M.M., & Maulan, S. (2010). Understanding children preferences of natural environment as a start for environmental sustainability. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38, 324 – 333. [Google Scholar]
  44. Matlack, G.R., & McEwan, R.W. (2008). Forest in my neighborhood: An exercise using aerial photos to engage students in forest ecology & land use history. American Biology Teacher, 70(3), 13-17. [Google Scholar]
  45. McGrath, D. (2002). Getting started with project based learning. Learning and Leading with Technology. 30(3), 42-45. [Google Scholar]
  46. Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2017). General qualifications of the teaching profession. Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  47. Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2018). Primary schools science course (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. classes) curriculum. Retrieved fromıd=325 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mosothwane, M. (2002). Pre-service teachers’ conceptions of environmental education. Research in Education, 68, 26–40. [Google Scholar]
  49. Ozdilek, S. Y., Ozdilek, H. G., Okur, E. & Eryaman, M. Y.(2012). Community and nature as curriculum: A case study of an outdoor environmental education project. International Journal of Educational Researchers, 3(1), 33-45. [Google Scholar]
  50. Özdemir, O. (2007). A new environmental education perspective: Education for sustainable development. Education and Science, 32(145), 23-39. [Google Scholar]
  51. Özsevgeç, T., & Artun, H. (2012). Development and evaluation of environmental education course modular program: an example of an ecosystem unit. Paper presented at the X. National Congress of Science and Mathematics Education, Niğde. [Google Scholar]
  52. Ramadoss, A., & Poyya Moli, G. (2011). Biodiversity conservation through environmental education for sustainable development – A case study from puducherry, India. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 1(2), 97–111. [Google Scholar]
  53. Rooij, S. W. (2009). Scaffolding project-based learning with the project management body of knowledge. Computers and Education, 52(1), 210-219. [Google Scholar]
  54. Saracaloğlu, A.S., Akamca, G.O., & Yeşildere, S. (2006). The place of project-based learning in primary education. G.Ü. Journal of Gazi Education Faculty, 4(3), 241-260. [Google Scholar]
  55. Seçkin, F. Yalvaş, G., & Çetin, T. (2010, November). Elementary 8. classroom students’ perceptions of environmental issues through cartoons. International Conference on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, Antalya, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  56. Simkins, M., Cole, K., Tavalin, F., & Means, B. (2002). Increasing student learning through multimedia projects. Virginia, Alexandria (USA): Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. [Google Scholar]
  57. Solomon, G. (2003). Project-based learning: A primer. Technology and Learning, 23(6), 20-27. [Google Scholar]
  58. Tao, P., & Gunstone, R. (1997). The process of conceptual change in “Force and Motion”. Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  59. Taycı, F., & Uysal, F. (2009, November). Survey work applied to first and second stage primary education students in Çorlu on environmental education. Symposium on Recent Developments in Science, Social and Environmental Education, Giresun, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  60. Timur, S., & Yılmaz, M. (2013). Adaptation of environmental behavior scale to Turkish. Gazi University, Journal of Gazi Education Faculty, 33(2), 317-333. [Google Scholar]
  61. Vatansever Bayraktar, H. (2015). Project based learning approach. The Journal of International Social Research, 8 (37), 709-718. [Google Scholar]
  62. White, R. T., & Gunstone, R. F. (1992). Probing understanding. London: The Falmer. [Google Scholar]
  63. Yağlıkara, S. (2006). The teachers opinions about the effects of science and nature activities on the preschool childrens acquisition of environmental awareness. Master’s thesis. Anadolu University Institute of Educational Sciences, Eskişehir.  [Google Scholar]
  64. Yılmaz, D. (2006). Developing methods for environmental education in secondary education. Master’s thesis. Marmara University Institute of Science, İstanbul. [Google Scholar]
  65. Yucasu, Ş. (2015). The effects of project based learning method on the pre-service science teachers’ environmental literacy. Master’s thesis. Fırat University Institute of Educational Sciences, Elazığ. [Google Scholar]